A stone age and the bronze age

A brief History on management

In Acquiring
knowledge about the history of any topic it is essential to know where it came
from, where it is, and the future it is heading towards. The topic of
management is no exception. Take for example sometimes when an article is read
or a piece from a newspaper is seen the mind begins to wonder, what is the
historical background behind this subject to form an opinion about said topic
only to change it after gaining an understanding of its historical roots. Many
of the problems managers face today date back to the early stages of managerial
movements and gaining an understanding of these managerial problems helps the
modern manager to cope with them with the aid of some technological
advancements. Such technological advancements have also aided the modern
manager in understanding why the managerial approaches of times past did not
work and have had a great impact on improving them and so to say it is always
important to find out the historical backgrounds of all aspects of life. The
topic management can be broken down into various forms of managerial concepts some
of them being scientific management, general administrative management,
financial management, human relations, and others but for the purpose of the
essay topic it would be narrowed down to business management. Some forms of
management have existed since the beginning of time. From the periods of the copper
age in-between the stone age and the bronze age some aspects of management has
existed, ever since one man decided to instruct another the development of
management thought was born and has been developing ever since. Looking at
management from its roots in Eastern Militarism and western philosophy some knowledge
has been continuously outlined over the years. Management thought has been
conceptualized as either coherent theories or systems of management such as
organising an enterprise or implementing cooperate policies. This can be further
broken down into a series of time periods (Millman, 1986). The beginnings of
management date back thousands of years, which can be broken down into eras,
the first being the era where management was seen as an operational science, meaning
in this era management was seen as an application of repeated observations used
in past events to define organisational strategies whereas in the second era
which dates back from Fayol and Taylor who had recognized management as still
an organisational science but then with more elaborate theories about how to
strategize in managing, which then led to the third era of the Post world war
II resulting in other eras of management, but all of them consistently do not
change the fact that management is a science as it is implemented in modern
organisational strategies which are now termed as strategic management (Millman,
1986).Management
techniques have been traced down to Iraq in 3000 Bc, written records were kept
by Sumerian priests as a means of recording their business transactions and
they were the first people to do so (Rogers, et al., 1995). Egyptian papyri translations
dating back to 1300Bc recognized that the importance of organizing and administration
in bureaucratic states (Rogers, et al., 1995). Similar records
have been found in ancient china. Around the time of 400 Bc Socrates defined
management as a skill separate from technical knowledge, management as a
separate art promoted principles of specialization (Rogers, et
al., 1995).Diocletian
who was a roman emperor in 284Ad started organizational hierarchies as he
reorganized his roman empire into 101 regions and grouped them into 13 congregations
which marked the beginning of the delegation of authority and chains of command
(Rogers, et al., 1995). Although the management of ancient Rome records are incomplete,  their organization was and how complex it was  influenced the development of managerial techniques.
The early Roman Catholic church used several management practices such as
territorial organization through the use of hierarchies and chains of command
to delegate responsibilities clearly for the people (Rogers, et al., 1995). Job descriptions
and assigning of responsibilities of staff are all attributed to the early
church.Some unnecessary narrowness has been given to
the meaning of the term management neglecting to include the basic disciplines
of it. To elaborate on this, it is observed that the early stages of the
twentieth century is where you can see that the development of management has
really surfaced itself and so it can be concluded that management as can be
seen is a modern concept and the ages of industrialization being the nineteenth
and twentieth centuries where cooperate organizations and large businesses are
being set up ,need  new approaches of
management to be developed (Rogers, et al., 1995). 

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