Chapter is one of the most abrupt

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

 

Background of the Study

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Philippines,
Djibouti and Angola and other countries in Asia are the remaining countries who
remain with a 10-year pre-university program. The Philippine Educational System
is one of the most abrupt formal educations in the world covering a span of 14
years. This system involves 6-year primary education, 4 years for secondary
education and another 4 years for tertiary education. Fortunately, the
government offers free and compulsory education for the first 6-year class of a
pupil. For secondary education, mandated order for curriculum is extended. As
for the tertiary education, it does not negotiates compulsory education, but
offers scholarship programs.  For this
reason, the country formulates an idea that adapts the educational system of
the majority.

In
order to maneuver this evident problem on education, the Department of
Education has started to implement the new K-12 Curriculum, which serves as the
major redeem in the existing curriculum. This reform includes boosting of basic
education for mastery and extending of basic education curriculum to
incorporate 12 years. By prolonging the basic education, that is, adding
kindergarten and two years in high school. The recent program ensures that
graduates earn the necessary skills and reach the legal age for employment to
qualify entrance into the world of work, if they desire or need to do so. On
the other hand, graduates who opt to go to tertiary education are deemed better
prepared for college study (Seameo Innotech, 2012).

A
major change brought about by K-12 curriculum is the addition of two years in
secondary education, known as Senior High School (SHS). The old 4-year
secondary curriculum will be now renamed as Junior High School (JHS) which
starts from Grades 7 to Grade 10, and Senior High School will follow through
from Grades 11 to 12.

The
newly implemented curriculum offers the highlights on opportunity
specialization in Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, Sports and Arts fields.
The chosen tracks depend on the students’ preference, interest and capacities.
Also, it will determine the subjects to be taken by the student during his/her
Senior High School.

The
tracks mentioned are as follows:

1.     Academic
Track

a. Accountancy, Business
and Management (ABM)

b. General Academic
Strand (GAS)

c. Humanities and Social
Sciences (HUMSS)

d. Science, Technology, Engineering
and Mathematics (STEM)

2.
Technical-vocational Track

      a. Agriculture-Fisheries

      b. Home Economics

      c. Industrial Arts

      d. Information and Communications
Technology (ICT)

3.
Sports Track

4.
Arts and Design Track

Statement of the Problem

            This study aims to determine the different
factors that affect the Senior High School strand preference of selected 10
students; specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:

1.     Leading
factors that affects the students’ preference in choosing Senior High School
strand in terms of:

a.      Personality

b.     Family/Relatives

c.      Interests

d.     Job
Opportunities

2.     How
do these factors do affect the student’s decision making in choosing Senior
High School strand?

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

            This study is anchored on the theory
of Donald Super which focuses on the development of life roles over the life
span with emphasis on inter-role congruence. His vocational concept as a part
of self-concept is formed; it is the driving force that establishes a career
pattern one will follow through life (Super, 1990). Vocational developmental
tasks are conclude from vocational stages which provides framework for
vocational behavior and attitudes. The vocational developmental stages are the
followings:

1.
Growth (birth-age 14 or 15), characterized by development of capacity,
attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self-concepts;

2.
Explanatory (ages 15-24), characterized by a tentative phase in which choices
are.

3.
Establishment (ages 25-44), characterized by trial and stabilization through
work experiences;

4.
Maintenance (ages 45-64), characterized by a continual adjustment process to
improve working position and situation; and

5.
Decline (ages 65+), characterized by preretirement considerations, reduced work
output, and eventual retirement.

The
crystallization task (ages 14-18) is forming a preferred career plan and
considering how it might be implemented. Relevant information is studied with
the goal of becoming more aware of the preferred choice and the wisdom of
preference. The specification task (ages 18-21) follows in which the individual
feels the need to specify the career plan through more specific resources and
explicit awareness of cogent variables of the preferred choice. The implementation
task (ages 21-24) is accomplished by the completion of training and entry into
the career and develops a feeling of security in career position.

The
stabilization (ages 24-35) is reached when the individual is firmly established
in a career and develops a feeling of security in career position. Finally, the
consolidation task (35+) follows with advancement and seniority in a career.
Super also identified six dimensions that were thought to be relevant and
appropriate for adolescents:

1.                      
Orientation to Vocational Choice (an
attitudinal dimension determining whether the individual is concerned with the
eventual vocational choice to be made);

2.                      
Information and planning;

3.                      
Consistency of Vocational Preferences
(individuals’ consistency of preferences);

4.                      
Crystallization of Traits (individual
progress toward forming a self-concept);

5.                      
Vocational Independence (independence of
work experience); and

6.                      
Wisdom of Vocational Preferences
(dimension concerned with individuals ability to make realistic preferences
consistent with personal tasks.)

This
theory is found to be appropriate because of its stressfulness in terms of
developing a career plan that will guide the individual in choosing his/her
career pathway. Also, Super’s six-dimension is appropriate for adolescent is
truly applicable because high school students fall under this category.

Another
theory adopted for the research is David Tiedeman’s “Self -Development
Approaches to Career”. Tiedeman believes that evolving ego-identity is of
central importance in the career development process. Tiedeman referred to the
evolving self-in-situation from the earliest awareness of self to point at
which individual becomes capable of evaluating experiences, anticipating, and
imagining future goals, and storing experiences in memory for future reference
with Tiedeman’s context of Erik Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises.
Self-in-situation, self-in-world and the orientation of work evolve as one
resolves the psychosocial crises of life. Tiedeman therefore conceptualized a
paradigm for problem-solving as the mechanism of career decision making. The
paradigm covers four aspects of anticipation or preoccupation (exploration,
crystallization, choice, and clarification) and three aspects of implementation
of adjustment (induction, reformation, and integration).

Tiedeman
stressed out why individual change their courses of action because of external
factors because of external forces (such as the call of the armed forces, an
economic crisis, the work setting itself) or by broad psychological drives
(such as unmet needs, changing aspirations, role diffusion). According to the
prescribed sequence, a new decision unfolds and must be made, beginning with
exploration and eventually reaching integration. If integration is not reached
once again, the individual may adapt to a career environment or may simply
withdraw and begin a new search for eventual integration.

The
rationale between these two theories is one follows a vocational self-concept
which is a driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow
through life but there are some factors could might altered this pattern. These
factors, such as external forces (called of armed services, economic crisis,
and work setting itself) and psychological drives (unmet needs, changing
aspirations, role diffusion) altered the career patterns of individual. Super
said that indecisiveness is a period in developmental process when interests
have not been fully crystallized. Individuals lead to discriminate two or more
choices of two or more occupational objectives when uncertainty about future
occurs. Tiedemann noted that as individuals become more aware of the developing
character of the career process itself, they are more willing to make changes
and to alter or redefine a decision.

The
focus of this study was undertaken by the following conceptual framework.

Input
– This includes their track preference and the factors that affect their
preference.

Process
– In the research process, this includes determining their track preferences
and determining the leading factors that affect their preference.

Output
– This study would identify the track preferences of Grade 10 students of
Valencia National High School and the factors that affect them which can be
used as basis for a career guidance program of the said school and for certain
institutions that would like to design and implement a Senior High School
program.

Significance of the Study

Learning
is the aspect of development that connotes modification of behavior, skills and
knowledge that results from practice and experience which sought for quality
education. The generalization of this present study would be a great
contribution to the vast knowledge in relation to student’s achievements. Vital
results of this investigation could be highly significant and beneficial
specifically to the following:

Researchers – This
study will inspire them to be creative to carry out programs that are
beneficial to both teachers and students, especially in Senior High School.

Students – As the
prospective Senior High School learners in the future, the findings of this
study would benefit and inspire them to formulate and act upon on their career
plans in the future.

Future Researchers –
This study would serve as reference that would help in conducting their own
research studies

Scope and
Delimitations

The
study is to be administered at Valencia National High School. The said school
is selected based mainly on the proximity of its location to the researchers
and on the kind of the education that they offer to its clientele. Valencia
National High School, commonly known as VNHS is situated at Lapu-lapu St.,
Poblacion, Valencia City, Bukidnon. The school stimulates the students’ rights
to quality, equitable, culture-based and complete basic education. For this
reason, the student hones skills and attitude while maintaining sense of
self-discipline. This study focuses on the senior high school track preferences
of their Grade 10 students of the Academic Year 2017-2018.

Definitions of Terms

Education
– the process of receiving or giving systematic
instruction, especially at a school or university.

K-12
Curriculum – in general educational term, it typically refers to the
content being taught and the learning experiences students have in the school
setting in grades kindergarten through twelve.

K-12 program – is the newly implemented
educational system in the Philippines

Senior
High School – is the second part of secondary
education under the K-12 program, wherein the students would take up the
subjects under their career pathway specialization

Career
Pathways – optional courses that offers the student for
specialization in academic, technical-vocational, sports and arts, and
entrepreneurship