“Genre” cinematography, music, etc. or, the sexual

“Genre” is a French word for types or class, it is what
distinguishes an artistic composition, for example, the genre of a work of art,
cinematography, music, etc. or, the sexual gender of a Human Being or an
animal. These images can be useful to help us think about how the genre change,
mutate and produce hybrids. The analysis will be divided into two parts. It
will begin by understanding how to distinguish the genre in the world of media,
followed by some examples. In the second part, therefore, will discuss the
reason why the genre is used by the media and how it influences an audience,
putting these concepts to work will result in a vast space of potential genres
and uses of media.  For reaching the
first concept the research will be based on four essentials codes: the visual
codes; auditory code; textual code; narrative code. In the second concept, the
research will be more based on understanding how audience consumption shapes
the product of the media industries and how media response to that in various


             The attempt to
classify particular genres is not an entirely neutral and objective procedure.

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According to theory, gender is marked by its distinct form, context and style.

However, the theory is not always objective and right, as it presents some
difficulties in its reading. For example, in cinematography, some films appear
to be aligned with one genre in content and another genre in form. There is
often considerable theoretical disagreement about the definition of specific
genres. A genre is ultimately an abstract conception rather than something that
exists empirically in the world,’ notes Jane Feuer (1992, 144). The audience
understands the defined genre through difference codes: visual codes; auditory
code; textual code; narrative code. The visual code is a crucial code to create
something and transmits the right message through it, human eyes are a tool
with enormous potential, so the pressure to transmit the right image and
message becomes much bigger. For this to happen it is essential to put together
several visual elements, such as a group of elements called
“mise-en-scène” which means “Everything you see on the
screen”, mise-en-scène comes from the theatre and is one of the key
components in the language of cinematographic world, is used to describe how
the set, locations, props and costume create the image. The location and
setting are very different things even for the audience that brings different
feelings each when using the true location can add more realism to the plot,
while the set can tell who is the character and the events that happened in the
past. Another concept essential is called “props” short for “property” which
focuses on strategies to support the narrative, such as the past, the present
and the future. Props are used to indicate the genre, such as the era where the
movie set was created. The costume is another very used concept, character’s
costume has a great impact in the sense or tone of the film, we can perceive
who the character is, what is his feeling, his custom and also show how the
character has been changing during the action. The interaction between the
characters, costumes, props and settings can be complementary, thus making the
scene generate more impact and bring certain emotions to the viewer. Finally,
to make the “mise-en-scene” complete the lights are the ideology,
feelings, colour, tone, atmosphere and history. With it, one can accentuate the
atmosphere of the image, by increasing or decreasing the light the environment
may be more conducive to a dramatic scene or a more joyous scene. The colours
when chosen properly can play a very important role in the interpretation of
the image, the colours create emotions and convey sensations to the consumer.

Colours are linked to lighting and will influence all other design production
areas. Depending on the saturation, the tone and the temperature they could
turn the same scene into two completely different. The professionals who work
with the image, base their work according to the psychology of colour, which
consists of categorizing each colour to different feelings and sensations. As
for example, white is used to convey peace, innocence, purity, sanity and calm,
that is why white is used in hospitals by doctors and nurses. Another example
is the blue that is a cold and depressive colour that conveys sadness to the
audience. Thus, colours play an essential role in the interpretation of the
image. To finalize this code, it is still important to speak about the denotation
and connotation of the image and its interpretation. The denotative sense of
some object means the literary meaning, that is the meaning that exists in the
dictionary, whereas the connotative meaning is the meaning associated with the
emotions, which means it is the visual metaphor of an object. For example, a
snake, seeing its literal meaning in the dictionary says the snake is a
non-poisonous reptile type of the snake family, however, when put in the image
of a snake its literary sense loses value and becomes associated to emotions
thus suggesting a sense of danger or evil to the audience. The second code to
be defined is the auditory code that explains how sound influences the genre
and the emotion in the image. Sound and music determine the mood and genre of
the video, using it to create and release tension, changing the character’s
emotional state, and reveal the message or theme of the film. For example, a
suspense film has the use of intense percussion and extensive use of a violin
and/or blow orchestra, percussion being in a low pitch and the main instruments
in a tone superior to the middle pitch, thus causing anxiety and fear. Compared
with comedy films where a soundtrack composed of several instruments, played in
a medium pitch and in a Major musical scale (M), is usually used to cause
animation and happiness to spectators. The next code is the textual
code, which consists in adapting types of lettering to the genre in question. A
more formal, geometric and monochromatic lettering is used in informative
media, such as for example in news, newspapers and information magazines. In
other cases, as a creative media, the whole formality is broken using more
creative and appealing lettering types, such as entertainment programs, series,
movies and entertainment magazines. The last code to be spoken about is
narrative codes that explore different ways of a text telling a story, the
narrative is linked to the audience and to the purpose of the text. When one
sees a narrative it usually presents certain characteristics that link it to
different genres, it is usually informed by the characters, action and
location, each media and genre has its own way of telling the stories. A closed
structure is when the narrative of the story has an end, an open end means that
the story has no conclusion, as for example in soap operas. Some other texts
have interactive structures, such as “The Voice” and other narratives
include point of view (POV). The study of Narrative is dependent on perceiving
different techniques and ways of writing a story according to each media, in
order to achieve standards.


The media have the power to
influence the audience for their benefit, act according to an established
standard that allows them to have the maximum audience. One of the ways for
this to happen is repetition, the audience becomes familiar with the generic convection
of the media, and appreciate the familiar feeling and glad to know vaguely what
they are going to watch. Because of that, the media has established a set of
rules that have been put into practice for many years, as it provides a safe
way to create content without running the risk of creating something that
audience will not consume. As the standard of production is similar, it allows
stabilizing the production, since many contents are recorded in the same place.

So, the audience always knows what they will receive and does not have to
assimilate a new program, film, music, etc. and allows the audience to choose
their own preferred content and genre.


In summary, the media is the major
influencer in the present days for the consumer distinguishing it in genres,
which can be identified according to four influencing codes, which one of them
is the visual code, which is perhaps the most crucial, since it plays with colours,
lights and places making it an important element for decoding the genre. The
auditory code is what brings the atmosphere to the image, that is the music and
the sound they are capable of arousing the perceived feeling according to the
genre and style of the image. Followed by the textual code that has the role of
awakening the attention of the consumer, because of the lettering of the
posters of cinema, covers of newspapers, etc. which plays with style, colour
and creativity. And the last code is the code of the narrative that is the
development of all the content, it explores different ways of telling a story
suiting it to its genre. In short, each consumer searches for their favourite
genre of media and each genre has its own conventions, thus varying the
characteristics of these codes. These concepts are the basis for understanding
how the media is influenced and influenced by their consumer.