Introduction Plastic surgery has become a more common practice all over the world and it’s not for medical reasons. People get it in order to enhance their features to look better. Majority of people who goes under the knife comes from Asia, specifically from South Korea. Plastic surgery has become such a trend that even adolescents are getting the procedure. I chose this topic to see what effect society has on adolescence causing them to have plastic surgery. I became interested in this topic after watching a lot of kdramas and listening to pop and saw that a lot of the celebrities seemed to have plastic surgery, including children. For this research I will be considering the country South Korea. The type of research that was done was that I considered the whole idea of plastic surgery and the country that kept appearing was South Korea because it is the “plastic surgery capital of the world” (Cho, 2015), because one in five gets plastic surgery. This topic is also being investigated because as time passes by, an increasing number of children are getting plastic surgery and the fact that children are constantly watching the media which can influence them. Is it a bad thing for them to get plastic surgery? The major things I will be talking about is the history of plastic surgery, the pressure of society, and the effects. The most common plastic surgery includes the Double eyelid (blepharoplasty), Jaw softening (V-line jaw surgery), and Rhinoplasty, according to (NewBeauty Editors, 2014). “One of the most popular procedures done on Asian women is eyelid surgery. Such a large percentage of Asians are born without a fold or crease in the upper lid, which they really want”, according to doctor Youn (NewBeauty Editors, 2014). What the Double eyelid procedure des for an individual is make their eyes look bigger and more defined. For the V-line jaw surgery, “An oval shaped or V-shaped face has always been considered attractive, soft and feminine”, according to Dr. Lay, (NewBeauty Editors, 2014). The V-Line jaw surgery gives you a smooth, younger looking face that most Asian women seek. For the Rhinoplasty “We can augment the bridge to give it a nice profile from the side view as well as more definition and shadowing from an anterior view.”, according to Dr. Lay, (NewBeauty Editors, 2014). The Rhinoplasty gives the individual a narrower nose with more projection due to the fact that they generally have wide and flat noses. Society and the media have an effect on adolescents because of the fact that they are exposed to it on a daily basis. There is a plethora of ways that South Korea attract audiences to want them to obtain plastic surgery because of the heavy advertisements. “Large scale media advertising in South Korea has been reinforcing the importance of appearance, molding Korea to an image obsessed society” (Wang, 2015). If you go to South Korea, you’ll see an abundance in advertisements in subway stations and in billboards. These things were put there to influence you to get plastic surgery and if an individual doesn’t get the procedure then they would be considered less than. Because of wanting to fit in people go and obtain plastic surgery. The history of plastic surgery in South Korea Plastic surgery was first used to help heal wounded soldiers or soldiers with deformities during the Korean-American war in the 1950s. Under the military dictatorship in 1961, there was push for economic development and plastic surgery was their best bet. Between 1980- 1999, plastic surgery began to be popularized and helped the economy surge by eight percent annually. Plastic surgery became “a form of ordinary shopping”, (Leem, 2015). “power. Given the economic development and political stability of this period, plastic surgery and other beauty treatments became part of middle-class culture”, (Leem, 2015) and became a more sophisticated practice. In the early 2000s, South Korea began industrializing plastic surgery, which made it become known as the place for it. The industrialization of plastic surgery was beneficial to the Korean people and the government because it created jobs for the people as the economy was collapsing. As demands for plastic surgery was becoming more popular, more clinics went up, especially in Gangnam, which became known as the “beauty belt”, as there are over 500 cosmetic clinics (Medtrip, 2016). Because of the Korean Wave, the globalization of South Korean culture through K-Dramas, K-pop, and films in other Asian countries, Plastic surgery became an eye opener for the Korean government, as it became a major source of national income and served as a replacement for manufacturing industries. The most desired plastic surgery procedures are the double eyelid, rhinoplasty, and jaw augmentation are for a reason. Between 1910 and 1945, Korea has fallen under the control of Japan colonists there was heavy exploitation and many of them faced extremely harsh brutalities. The Japanese government deliberately wanted to annihilate any trait of Korean culture and integrate Japanese culture. The Japanese government forced the Koreans to join the military, worship at Shrines, speak Japanese, because “every attempt at preserving Korean identity was discouraged” (Wang, 2015). The conflict between the two countries caused the Korean people the despise the Japanese people and they wanted to separate themselves and “sought for a national identity”, (Pai, 2013). Na Se-jin, an anthropologist, differentiated the Korean people from the Japanese people by stating that the Koreans resembled Western culture of Europeans and white Americans. In order to differentiate themselves from the Asian culture, they sought out Western features, such as the double eyelid surgery, which was first popularized by the surgeon Dr. David Ralph Millard. Getting plastic surgery gave them a new meaning to who they were. The Media’s Beauty Standards In the media a person, especially for a female, is viewed as the perfect person, not because of their actions, but rather their beauty. What does beauty mean to the South Koreans? Having the perfect eyes and the perfect nose and the perfect face determines your social status because you have the money to achieve something like that. Something that emphasizes on beauty standard are K-pop and K-Drama, but notably, K-pop. K-pop is a way of getting South Korea on the chart in terms of music. “K-pop industry features flashy performances, dancing, celebrity stage shows” (Wang, 2015), and through this they are able to grasp an international recognition, but this is not the only thing that they are selling. They are also selling “their flawlessly chiseled appearance” (Wang, 2015). In order to accepted by an international society, you need to give a first good impression, and the first thing people usually notice about an individual is their looks. If they are appealing to the eye than they would be accepted so this is one reason why beauty is heavily addressed. Majority of the people that listens to K-pop are between the ages of 13-24, which accounts for 77.1 percent of all K-pop listeners (Reddit, 2016). “Media influence on teenagers… advertising is often directed at children and teenagers.”, (Raising Children Network, 2017) as they become more aware of brands and images. Media indirectly affects the children because it makes them think that this is the way to look in order to be accepted into society. K-pop can be seen as an advertisement for plastic surgery because plastic surgery is prevalent amongst K-pop idols, weather it be the basic double eyelid and rhinoplasty, or even. jaw augmentation, in order to succeed in the K-pop industry. The plastic surgery world is rapidly growing “because of its connection to the entertainment world” (Francis, 2013). A lot of agencies gets discounts from plastic surgery clinics by advertising their surgeries, meaning that a lot of K-pop idols will be getting plastic surgeries. The appreciation of celebrities drives plastic surgery. Many children look up to their idols and want to achieve the same goal as them: to look pretty. Because of this, they go and get plastic surgery. When going into clinics, patients will bring magazines with them to show the doctor and says, “I want the eyes of whoever, I want the nose of whoever. Please make my nose into the style of this star”, (Francis, 2013). They look up to their idols, believing that they are the definition of beautiful, and believe that they have to look like them in order to be beautiful. In the K-pop world, they have to keep up with the beauty trend which is making adolescents feel as if they have to keep up with the beauty trend. They want to be as pretty as them. Koreans don’t see it as an obsession because you are changing your looks but rather they see it as an enhancement to their looks. Adolescents will see it as a way of enhancing your looks and some. Parents and Beauty Standards Every parent wants their kids to be successful and to get ahead in society, but what better way to do it than to have the looks? Certain parents forces their kids to get plastic surgery because they believe that it is the only way to get ahead in society. Being smart alone doesn’t get you anywhere, “beautiful people are always chosen first,” (Malleta, 2016). Parents often offer plastic surgery as an insensitive to their children if if they do good in school and graduate, which costs from around $1,000 to $3,000. Parents wants their child to look pretty before going out into the real world because that means there’s a high chance of them getting a job and a husband. Society doesn’t focus on the personality of a person but their looks when they first meet someone. Having a pretty face or getting plastic surgery gives a person the impression that you are of high social status. A parent wants the child to look like they came from a family of good background and have a good husband. Because of this a child will feel the need to go under the knife because they will feel as if that is the only way that they can get ahead. Without plastic surgery the child feels less than everyone else and they feel that they are extremely ugly compared to everyone else around them and as a result they will do anything to get the procedure. Psychological Effects of the Media and Society Because adolescents spend majority of their on the media, they are more aware of body image. The media presents a certain image that makes people feel as if it is an obligation to follow the trend because everyone is doing it or they will be dissatisfied with themselves. . As beauty is a “necessary prerequisite for health and happiness, anyone falling short of this ideal is vulnerable to depression, poor self-esteem, and general body dissatisfaction.”, (Vitelli, 2013). Adolescents are prone to the media’s influences because of body changes during puberty. As children grow up, they look for an identity for themselves that is acceptable to people. The child looks in the media and their idols as an inspiration. As they grow up and looking for an identity, their self esteem is low so they fall under peer pressure from society on how to look and in order to fit into the social norm, they are driven to get plastic surgery. As a child goes through puberty, they become more aware of their body image and the way they look. During this time, their self esteem drops because their don’t fit into the ideal picture of a pretty girl. “Self-esteem is so intrinsically linked to thoughts about one’sbody that physical appearance”, (Ata, 2003), meaning that if a child is not satisfied with their appearance then their self esteem would be low, and if they are satisfied with their body image then their self esteem is low. A child often looks to an individual, whether it’d be their favorite idol, classmate, or parents and if they are not at the same level as the individual, they will feel less than. Because so many people in Korea goes under the knife, the child also wants to go under the knife to be like the average person. This idea will be examined using the Tripartite Model of Social Comparison theory, by Leon Festinger. This theory states that there are three basic motives for self comparison with others: self evaluation, self improvement, and self enhancement. Self evaluation has to do with comparing yourself with others based on their characteristics that has to do with social expectations. Self improvement has to do with trying to change a certain feature of themselves to fit into the social norm. Self enhancement improves the self esteem and gives self worth to a certain person by improving the person’s satisfaction of themselves. This is related to a child because the child looks at their favorite K-pop idol or actor/ actresses based on each of the aspects for inspiration on how they could improve themselves through magazines and tv. By following the trend., it gives the child a sense of identity, so the child goes and get plastic surgery. This idea works not only with the media but also their social environment, like school. A child goes to school and look upon how their fellow schoolmates to see how they look because a good amount of them has had plastic surgery. The child would be low in self esteem and an outcast because everyone has, i.e., the double eyelid surgery (since this is the most popular surgery) while you don’t and as a result they will be teased. A child looks up to a friend more for advice based on looks, rather than a parent, and a friend will encourage them to get plastic surgery. A parent will also encourage their child to get plastic surgery because that is how you get accepted into society, since it is a trend. A parent will be negatively affected if a child gets bullied for their looks so they drive their children to get the plastic surgery.Opposing Viewpoint Plastic Surgery is sometimes seen as something derogatory because it causes a person to lose their sense of identity and that people are too reliant on it and that they are trying to imitate Western culture Getting plastic surgery can’t always be a bad thing because it helps boost a child’s confidence. To justify this, one can look at at the testimony of Jung Hyu-Hee. Hyu-Hee is the mother of a twelve year old and is having her child go under the knife because her child lacks self confidence. “I think it’ll help her. This is a society where you have to be pretty to get ahead. She’s my only daughter.” (Lah, 2011). By doing this, the child’s self esteem went up because of the procedure. Another reason why having the surgery isn’t a bad thing is because of the society that they are living where it is extremely demanding. In order to try to get ahead in society, looks are important, especially for a field in which your face will be shown on camera. By getting the plastic surgery, one will be able to be on top of the food chain. Koreans getting plastic surgery is not meant for the imitation of the Western, but rather it gives them a “beautifully” unique style.Conclusion The main idea of the research is that society negatively influence South Koreans, Asians in getting plastic surgery. The research included different ways on how society has an effect on adolescents. Plastic surgery was first meant of healing people, but now that has not been the case so much. To the Koreans, plastic surgery is a normal topic to be discussed, not in a negative way but a positive way. Plastic Surgery in Korean is being culturally driven. Being able to get plastic surgery defines an individual as a person. It shows that a person will be competent in this competitive world because of their flawless looks, in terms of getting a job, soulmate, etc. Because of the mass media and the plethora of advertisement, it is desired even more in people, especially adolescents. Adolescents spend more time watching television and keeping up with celebrities more than adults do and as a result of that, they become more aware of themselves as a person in terms of outward appearances. Adolescents are exposed to a variety of advertisements that has to do with plastic surgery and surrounded by people that had has them, which makes them want to get it also. Because of all the advertisements going abound, showing the “perfect beauty”, a child be influenced. Without it, the child’s self esteem will be low because they feel as though they are ugly compared to everyone else and in order to be pretty, they have to get it in order to be as good looking as the average person. Also, when growing up, a child experience bullying because they don’t fit in with everyone else because they are surrounded by their peers that has the double,elid, Rhinoplasty, Jaw reduction, etc. A child wants a place where they can fit in and the plastic surgery procedure gives them a sense of identity and self worth. Because it is a child’s desire to get it, their parents would offer iit up as an incentive for their birthday or graduation. The parent doesn’t mind giving it to the child because they know that it will reap beneficial results at the end because of the way society is moving.Reflection For the extended essay I researched how popular plastic surgery is in South Korea because it is often talked about, so I decided to do my essay based off of that. I originally intended to do the research on the three most popular Asian countries which are China, Japan, and South Korea but it would’ve been harder for me to narrow my paper so I did it based off of South korea, and also because of the fact that there was a plethora of information on the topic. Some of the choices that I have made poorly was trying to fit an idea into the topic when it didn’t make any sense and I fixed that by doing more research. It has been kind of hard to find an aspect to talk about because there were a lot of things that I could talk about that had to do with the topic. I have been careful of selecting what I would talk about in my research because I knew my topic had to b defended by some type of research, or else it would be rhetoric, so I looked at psychological effects of the media and family. I also looked at the background information to see how plastic surgery became industrialized in Korea to see why the would get plastic surgery and why it is very demanding. It has been easy to find sources based on the topic so it wasn’t hard planning on what I wanted to talk about. A set back that I have faced is trying to come up with a counterclaim for the research paper because plastic surgery is seen as a bad thing so there weren’t any articles on how it was a good thing. So for counterclaim I had to come up with a way on how it would be a good thing. Something I would have done differently is see if there was a strong counterclaim to my argument. A mistake that I made was focus too much on the background information on how plastic surgery was popularized that it made up most of my research time because that was not the main focus of my paper. I should have focused more on the psychological effect and how it affects the children, What I learned about myself is that I have a lot of things that I would like to talk about and that I found this topic to be interesting. What was proven more difficult than expected was the counterclaim and conclusion and how I dealt with this was try find ways that people would defend themselves, for the counterclaim. For the conclusion, I researched on how to write it..