POWER THEFT IN LESS ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES Aaron Palmer Mr. FherElectronics Project 10 December 2017Less economically developed countries (LEDCs) like India, Brazil and many others suffer from power thefts. These countries have some of the vastest lands on the earth, as well as being home to millions of people. Brazil is the tenth largest energy consumer in the world, with energy prices going up daily and capital markets tightening, Brazil has been experiencing major losses in the form of power theft. The two most significant issues LEDCs face today are the inability to afford to pay for the energy and the theft of said energyGenerally, places like Brazil and India have a hard time detecting, catching and finding out about energy theft. In the majority of cases, by the time these owners find out about the problem they are probably already in a pool of debt. It’s not that people in other countries don’t care it’s just that they do not have the proper tools, equipment and money to enforce proper protections. With a low budget, it’s hard to properly track the ones stealing and taking advantage of the lack of security. As I began to dig deeper into ways to educate and help this issue. I researched a device to create that would undoubtedly help out youth and educate them on how to meter and track power. If taught at a young age, it may help resolve the pressing problem of thieves invading people’s privacy and taking things that don’t belong. In the course of this project I will present an idea that will potentially help homeowners to track, learn, and monitor their own power voltage devices and test to see if there are any discrepancies through a program displayed on a small screen. Firstly, I want to briefly outline the history of the device and techniques used in countries prone to energy theft. There are many factors that contributed to both past and present energy theft and the subsequent damage thereafter. In the late 1800s, an association of multiple companies addressed issues such as the tampering of components like screws used to adjust the meter magnets. The accepted method of calculating the amount of energy being stolen is done by subtracting the amount of energy supplied, and calculated distribution of energy loss. This comes from the having metered energy into a distribution system. Studies have shown that energy theft typically withdraw about 0.5 to 3 percent from the field audits reveal that of retail revenues in developed countries. 1,Pardon Our Interruption. In the next few years, LEDCs will incur approximately $10 billion dollars in cost from electricity thefts. For example, one way the United States would check to see if their energy was being stolen, is by placing something called a meter diversion. This is the process of bypassing energy that goes around the meter so that you can tap into utility conductors before the revenue meter or jumping it. Another way is to turn the meter upside down which inverts the system. When a device is tampered with, the device creates false information on consumption. The system components can be destroyed through overheating as a result of the tampering. To elaborate, most thieves will create a system wherein they swap the meters, and then invert the meters temporarily to make it run in reverse. Most utilities are generally conservative naturally but, since energy theft usually occurs when no one is there to monitor any potential tampering, the equipment is left vulnerable. Researchers have found that for every dollar invested to counter stolen energy, companies are expected to recover an estimated $4 to $6 billion. Surprisingly, about 80 percent of revenue-related energy thefts are committed by commercial customers while 80 percent of resources spent to stop theft are spent on residential accounts. Whether its commercial or residential theft, there are six steps that can minimize energy theft: training, education, reporting, investigating, prosecuting, restitution, and prevention. When the utility meter readers have their monthly check on the systems, the meter readers quickly review the issues on each meter and on the socket to check and make sure it hasn’t been tampered with.Oftentimes, some utility companies allot resources meant to educate law enforcement as to what they should look for when there is suspicion of any sort of energy theft. This is achieved with explanation videos showing exactly what the problem is or what a meter that has been tampered with looks like. It is important to report suspected violators so that customers can be aware of why their bill is steadily increasing. Energy theft is not only criminal in nature, but it is also hazardous, with and can result in civil consequences. Hazards include fire, shock, and electrocution. Signs of energy theft include: inverted meters, holes in the glass meter cover, magnets near the meter, jumper wires around the meter, or interceptions of electricity upstream of the meter. Technology such as automatic meter reading, or advanced metering infrastructure (AMR/AMI) systems are usually great for alerting the user when the meter is being tampered with. Most AMR/AMI systems have analytical tools as well as algorithms to detect if people may be possibly stealing from customer load data. (MDM) or also known as meter data management offer a mathematical algorithm that can analyze energy consumption, meter tamper, tilt flags, historical data and even weather conditions to compute an energy theft score. This score is we then use to prioritize and secure the field inquiry. The drawback of an AMI/AMR system is losing the traditional meter reader’s monthly visual inspections. Even with AMI/AMR and advanced analysis, annual visual meter inspections may be warranted. Once the metered energy starts to increase after again after an investigator’s field visit, once the theft is detected at a customer’s location, investigate search for any other disturbance around that area because nine times out of ten it is the same theft doing this horrible act.How to Prevent This ProblemA great tactic adopted by investigators was to organize and document evidence meticulously so that there is a paper trail and the criminals can be charged appropriately according to their violations. The best and smartest thing for the utility companies to do is to lobby each municipality to enforce stiff penalties for criminals who commit energy theft. This means their actions will be taken into account with civil consequences, or even restitution should be made like in the form of back-billing. Unfortunately, sometimes when criminals manage to escape the thieves begin to re-establish another cycle of crime. Therefore, LEDCs like Brazil have created special meter locks that can be installed to prevent meter removal for those previously caught committing, or suspected of, energy thefts. Another good tactic utility companies have tried is using transparent socket covers. As previously mentioned, companies wanted to prevent these thefts and help the select few that are stealing because they can’t afford it in the form of offering assisted payment or care-sharing programs specifically created to help low-income families which may possibly lower energy use as well as reducing the power cut-offs for non-payments. Some electric companies use disciplinary damage awards and reimbursement revenue to help fund these energy assistance programs.The Utility companies took the initiative to give their employees in LEDCs bills correcting classes that inform them and teach the technicians how to rectify the meters inaccuracy and, so they can contribute a small percentage of the revenue back to the stolen system. If MDM systems are not checking for energy thefts we also check if the customer is being overcharged as well as undercharged this not only will bring justice to the utility companies but to the rest of society as well. It is cautious that the utility companies change out there systems periodically. We do this because some electro mechanical meters slow down over time and will output the wrong data. Some meter types made by certain manufacturers in certain eras have consistent slow-down rates-some as much as 0.5 percent reduction per year. Improving and changing out each old electromechanical meter with solid-state ones will improve meter accuracy tremendously. This benefit of having no moving components in the device, solid-state meters are more tamper resistant, and when the utilities people check the data it will be accurate even if a theft attempted to turn the unit upside-down. As mechanical meters begin to die off as the man device in this field, are now being reduced and replaced by AMR/AMI systems, utilities can expect to see an increase in diversion from bypassing the meter. Proactively analyzing meter data will help keep the problem under control. H. W. “Skip” Clark, has been employed for El Paso Electric Company for 32 years. He worked 10 years as a energy diversion investigator and was certified by the International Utilities Revenue Protection Association. He has previously authored technical papers in electrochemistry, photovoltaics, electrical utility distribution, reliability and power quality to help this issue around the world in third world countries.Statistics More than 20% of the full amount of electricity generated in India and Brazil is lost to thefts. To identify the determinants of electricity theft they took panel data from 2010 to 2012 for 21 Indian states and 21 brazil locations. Drawing data over a time span of 12 years, Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) demonstrate that lesser corruption, higher state tax to GDP ratio, greater collection efficiency of electricity bills by state utilities, higher share of private installed capacity, lesser poverty, greater literacy and greater income are closely associated with lesser power thefts. B.C Hydro’s Patrick Hogan, Vice President of Transmission and Distribution Engineering and Design has one of the most important job, he makes sure electricity gets from the generation stations to the homes, business companies, that use it. A good point he mentioned the value of smart utility meters in preventing thefts because in places like India and brazil might result in a loss of up to a third of the power generated. World Loses $89.3 Billion to Electricity Theft Annually, $58.7 Billion in Emerging Markets’ Utility industry looks toward smart grid infrastructure to combat losses Dec 09, 2014, 06:21 ET from Northeast Group, LLCElectricity theft we all know is a is a worldwide problem, especially in many emerging market countries. Currently, the top 50 emerging market countries lose $58.7bn per year due to electricity theft. As for the rest of the world expenses are just a little over $30.6bn and that’s including the largest industrialized economies. In order for these 50 emerging market countries to catch up to today’s technology they will have to invest $168bn over the next decade. The annual Emerging Markets Smart Grid studies show in 2015 found that the reducing theft in these 50 countries would need the help of BRICS which would give them an increase of priority for utilities and regulators. Power infrastructure transformations across the developing world. “India alone has loss over $16.2bn per year, followed by Brazil with $10.5bn and Russia with $5.1bn. (World Loses $89.3 Billion to Electricity Theft Annually, $58.7 Billion in Emerging Markets,1)It is estimated that by 2024 a emerging of market countries will spend about $29bn per year on smart grid infrastructure defeat there thieves, and improve reliability and financial sustainability. Studies have shown that the Northeast Group’s profiles each of the 50 developing countries, forecasts smart grid investment and highlights key trends for 2015. This study found that electricity prices have risen 17% over the past year. increasing the incentives for smart grid investment—and that vendors have shifted focus from their legacy businesses to smart infrastructure offerings. Studies of this nature includes smart grids that regulate would rank countries and regional forecasts between 2014-2024. These forecasts cover smart metering, distribution automation, wide area measurement, home energy management and information technology. Profiles of each country are included as well as details on key vendors and market trends.Artificial Intelligence Multiple companies are facing a logistics problem related to shipping goods. If the machine learning or deep learning chips are applied to that problem, it might find a way to optimize the logistics, optimize efficiencies for that company, and increase returns.But let’s take it a step further: Could AI someday use vast amounts of company sales data to help an apparel retailer determine amounts of product to produce? Could it help banks replace a lost debit card without any human interaction? Or help factories determine when machinery might fail using historical performance of equipment and advanced monitoring, ensuring a factory can run 24/7/365 with no downtime? Perhaps.For companies, these new technologies may improve productivity in a meaningful way, particularly in sectors that are less digitized than others, such as capital goods, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, healthcare and financial services. Many of these business sectors have a wide range of data flowing through their systems, and don’t necessarily use that data to its full potential.Over the course of the next decade, Artificial Intelligence may not only have the potential to supercharge the semiconductor industry, it could be transformative across all industries. Problem Solving Cases The most accurate versions of the system were able to identify problem cases just over 65 per cent of the time, which the team believes outperforms similar tools. Smart energy firm CHOICE Technologies, which was involved in the research, now plans to implement the technology in commercial software that will be used in Latin America.Although electricity theft is less common in developed countries, energy firms in the UK are concerned enough that they recently agreed to share data to help identify potential cases.”It’s interesting that this software can, in theory at least, tell that that building using 10 per cent of what others are using is stealing electricity,” says Paul Ruyssevelt at University College London’s Energy Institute. However, he also points out that it’s normal for adjacent buildings to have very different levels of energy use, which could lead to false positives.Similar false positives may also be leading to erroneous billing by energy companies. “There are other types of anomaly – meters break, or there could be billing errors,” says Glauner. In the end, adopting an algorithmic approach to understanding meter errors could lead to a better deal for both suppliers and consumers. DIY Power Meter Circuit Components:1x LiPo Battery1x TP4056 Board1x Arduino Pro Mini1x INA219 Board1x OLED LCD1x SD Card PCB1x SwitchLet’s say you have a device that uses usb power directly a usb power meter can be a useful tool to measure the voltage of USB port , the current the gadget draws , the power it needs , and most importantly it locks in how much energy is being transferred this way after converting the value of to kilowatt hours you can simply multiply this value with the price per kilowatt hour and therefore for example calculate that wireless charging a smartphone cuz you 0.15 u or more for every 100 charges now you can simply buy a power meter for cheap offline but the purpose of this project is to inform students and to show you how to create a portable updated version which gives us a higher voltage range, higher measuring frequency and even SD card support so you can evaluate your measurements later on. First, we used a Arduino Nano to be the brains of the operation, organization for the first prototype measuring voltage bovitz is as simple as connecting the positive of terminal of your loads to a analog inputs negative terminal to ground and writing a simple analog read commands , but measuring current is definitely more complicated commonly you would need a shunt which is basically a precise low value resistor that needs to be placed in series to your loads in order to order to create a voltage drop proportional to the flowing current this voltage drop can then be amplified and fed into a microcontroller in order to calculate the current value but to make life easier on us we used a 1na219 zero-drift Bi-directional Current/ Power Monitor With I-C interface. You can find these embedded on a PCB such as the picture above. This component also includes a zero-point 1 ohm current and a screw terminal due to the maximum current shunt input voltage of 320 millivolts. We can measure are maximum current of 3.2 amps and a maximum voltage of 26 based on the specs. When hooking up the Arduino serial connects to a4 and clock connects to a5 at this point we can use the wire library of the arduino to wire our own ice query codes so that we can communicate with the IC but I used a the NA 219 library from Adafruit included and you will have to write only a short line of codes in order to output the current and load voltage through the serial monitor in order to measure anything useful though we need to connect the V+ pin to the positive terminal of the supplied voltage the minus pin to the positive terminal of the loads and the ground of the loads to the ground of the measuring system. Once you accomplish this the serial output level should give good values and be good to go. Now once you do this u have to add in a couple more lines of code that give the variable were using and a moolies function in order to the measurement to repeat every 100 milliseconds this way I cannot only add power measurement outputs by multiplying the current and load voltage but also a energy counter which adds the power value multiply by 100 milliseconds converted into hours to the previous energy value since serial monitor now presents all the values we wanted correctly . You will then add a display to your board to which is wired the same as before since the IC uses the same I squared C communication. Then, you need to download and include a library from Adafruit, you will then need to create light function and figure out where to position the tx in the LCD in order to make it look decent. Last but not least you would need a SD module if you wanted to keep track of your data. This device includes a Ivc of 125 level shifter this chip is important because of the SPI pins of the Arduino 11 – 14 connect to the SD device which needs a high voltage level of about 5 volts but the SD can only handle 3.3 volts. Now after formatting the SD card you can upload the Arduino IDE ,& SD library into your code. You then need to create three .tx files which contain the time. voltage , and current values by simply importing them into a program like excel to create decent looking graphs and calculate the amount of power being used and their energy values. After these multiple steps are done lastly, we replace the ultra no pro mini which are already programmed with a FTDI break out added a lipo battery both protection and charging circuit to the system after your done with everything it’s time to soldering the components on the a PCB.ConclusionNow that we know multiple ways on how to resolve this huge issue of power being taken for countries like brazil and India as well as others suffer from power thefts. We know that these countries have resolved this problem by replacing the mechanical meters with Solid-State device meters, Smart Grids, Artificial Intelligence , and advanced metering infrastructure (AMR/AMI).This device not only educates you on how a power system works but also how to build one less than 60 dollars. This devices is could be built in LEDCs for the youth in schools around the world so that can be educated and informed on this huge Chrissie’s in LEDCs to try and prevent this issue. Not lonely are they learning how a power system works they are learning how to interface the software with the hardware and troubleshoot how the system similar to this would work as a whole and separately.