Preface to facilitate learning. We need them

Preface

This Teachers Toolkit present
different apps that can be used in educational process and use different mobile
devices, without to avoid the use of a PC. Our goal was to encourage teachers
to integrate ICT in their activity by facilitating the designing of engaging
Learning Activities. We had in mind that we must promote the evaluating of the
use of mobile devices in the benefit of learning activities, and not for
themselves.

We aimed to present some general
considerations about mobile learning and how can we use mobile devices in an
innovative way in educational process.

Our goal is to put at teachers and
trainers in general a set of instruments, which can develop a new perspective
for using digital resources into any educational process. Mobile devices are
instruments to facilitate these practices, used to scale up innovative use of
ICT in or outside the school within an education system. In our acceptance,
mobile devices are necessary tools that can be used to facilitate learning. We
need them to supplement schools’ resources, to extend learning process outside
the classes walls, to prepare students for working life after their graduation.

To understand better our ides, we
started with the presentation of some general considerations about mobile
learning and how can we use mobile devices in an innovative way in educational
process. As a result of theoretical considerations, we present some toolsets
that can bring us closer to the demand and need of our students, who are, we
must to admit “digital natives”.

There are two main types of toolsets
that we propose to: application that aims to respond to a specific demand, or
general resources, that can be adapted for any educational process. Each
toolset has a range of resources that can be adapted to individual needs and
local contexts. The
resources within them can be used independently or as part of a complete
process for developing future classroom scenarios. We hope that by using these
toolsets to contribute at changes, from a single classroom, to whole school or
wider education system.

We structured each tool presentation
in a similar manner, that is the result of our experience as ICT in general and
mobile device users, working with students on these devices. Bearing in mind
that not all application can be used on any device, we present mostly those
digital tools that can be used online, tailored for any platform, or for most
used of them.

That is why we recommend that each
time you want to use one of these digital tools that we propose to you, first
to verify if it is suitable for all platforms that you and your students have
on your own devices. As a general consideration, technical conditions are
important for a good usage of each application, since we need, for the most of
the time, to be connected to the internet. That is why we don’t recommend to
access these resources, and construct learning activities based on them, if you
know that the network in your school don’t provide a good internet connection for
all students, or if they have not access to personal resources, to be connected
online.

 

 

Introduction

School
failure and drop out, lack of interest in content and the way they are
addressed have become a source of problems for education. The school of today
is not and will not be more the school of yesterday. So the adjustment to the
new content, but mainly to the way to teach them will have deep implications in
the educational system. The change of pedagogical practices is an inescapable
reality that teachers and school will have to access.

We
have verified that the potential of multimedia applications, adapted to the
contexts of teaching and learning, can constitute important teaching tools in
the dynamics of the classroom (Lencastre, Bento & Magalhães, 2016). In
addition, there is a great popularity and familiarity with mobile devices that
have increasingly referenced attributes as potential users (Kukulska-Hulme,
2012). The rise of these resources is a fact that, in fact, can be explored in
the educational process, through the pedagogical model called Mobile Learning
(Lencastre et al, 2016; Kukulska-Hulme, 2012). Mobile devices, showing
advantages such as mobility, portability and connectivity, can help to develop
cognitive aspects, given the possibility of using the most varied multimodal
formats (Lencastre et al, 2016).

Thus,
we find that the benefits of using mobile devices in a school context have been
defended by several authors (Mascheroni & Ólafsson, 2014; Kukulska-Hulme,
2012), arguing that, as tangible systems, mobile devices place the emphasis on
interaction between the student and the task, in the manipulation with the
content, thus also avoiding the additional cognitive load that already exists
with the interaction with the content.

In
this context, six European schools (Colegiul Tehnic Edmond Nicolau Focsani –
Romania, 1st Lyceum of Rhodes Venetokleio – Greece, IIS M. Filetico – Italy,
Zsespol Zscol im.por. Jozefa Sarny w Gorzicach – Poland, Toki Halkali Anadolu
Imam Hatip Lisesi – Turkey and Agrupamento de Escolas da Maia – Portugal), and
the University of Minho have developed this guide to help teachers to develop
skills in the application of educational innovation scenarios using mobile
learning.

 

About
This Toolkit (How to use it)

 

This toolkit is divided in four parts:

1.      
The first one is
about What mobile learning is – contextualization.

2.      
The second part is
about innovative pedagogies with th use of mobile learning

3.      
The third part is
about some tools you can use.

4.      
The final part some
critical considerations are made about using mobile devices on the classroom.

The purpose of this toolkit is to help teachers
changing their pedagogical practices with the learning of new scenarios and
students can develop their skills of self-assessment, critical thinking,
adaptability and transferability of knowledge, enhancing their digital skills.

 

What is mobile learning – contextualization

There
is no agreed upon denotation of mobile learning. The concepts of mobile learning can be elucidated based
on culture and affordances of mobile technologies.

Quinn
(2000) defined mobile learning as simply learning that takes place with the
help of mobile devices, or the intersection of mobile computing (the
application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication
devices) and elearning (learning facilitated and supported through the use of
information and communications technology).

Pinkwart,
N., Hoppe, H.U., Milrad, M. & Perez, J. (2003, pp 383), defines e-learning
as “learning supported by digital “electronic” tools and media”, and by
analogy, mobile learning as ‘e-learning that uses mobile devices and wireless
transmission’.

Mobile
Learning means any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a
fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes
advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies
(O’Malley et al., 2003).

Mostakhdemin-Hosseini
and Tuimala (2005) view mobile learning simply as the natural evolution of
e-learning, which completes a missing component such as the wireless feature,
or as a new stage of distance and elearning (e.g., Georgiev, et al. 2004).
M-learning is often described as occupying a sub-space within the e-learning
space, which is in turn a sub-part of digital learning.

Mobile
learning should be restricted to learning on devices which a lady can carry in
her handbag or a gentleman can carry in his pocket (Keegan, 2005).

In
the ELearning Guild 360 Mobile Learning Reserach Report (2007), mobile learning
appears as “Any activity that allows individuals to be more productive when
consuming, interacting with, or creating information, mediated through through
a compact digital portable device that the individual carries on a regular
basis, has reliable connectivity and fits in a pocket or purse”.

According
to Lan and Sie, (2010) “Mobile learning (mlearning) is a kind of learning model
allowing learners to obtain learning materials anywhere and anytime using
mobile technologies and the Internet”.

Figura
1 The three concepts of mobile
learning

El-Hussein, M. O. M., & Cronje, J. C. (2010, pp 17).view mobile
learning as learning environmental based on mobility of technology, mobility of
learners and mobility of learning that augments the higher educational
landscape.

 

Stevens
and Kitchenham (2011) define mobile learning as “the use of a wireless handheld
device; a cell phone, personal digital assistant (PDA), mini-computer, or iPod
to engage in some formo f meaningful learning”.

Nyiri
(2002) defines mobile learning as the Learning that arises in the course of
person-to-person mobile communication.

“Mobile
learning is when the learning experience that you’re trying to design happens
to be out and about in the world.” (Dikkers, 2012)

MoLeNET
(2014) says that it is”The exploitation of ubiquitous handheld
technologies, together with wireless and mobile phone networks, to facilitate,
support, enhance and extend the reach of teaching and learning”.

A
popular definition of mobile learning is education Preface

This Teachers Toolkit present
different apps that can be used in educational process and use different mobile
devices, without to avoid the use of a PC. Our goal was to encourage teachers
to integrate ICT in their activity by facilitating the designing of engaging
Learning Activities. We had in mind that we must promote the evaluating of the
use of mobile devices in the benefit of learning activities, and not for
themselves.

We aimed to present some general
considerations about mobile learning and how can we use mobile devices in an
innovative way in educational process.

Our goal is to put at teachers and
trainers in general a set of instruments, which can develop a new perspective
for using digital resources into any educational process. Mobile devices are
instruments to facilitate these practices, used to scale up innovative use of
ICT in or outside the school within an education system. In our acceptance,
mobile devices are necessary tools that can be used to facilitate learning. We
need them to supplement schools’ resources, to extend learning process outside
the classes walls, to prepare students for working life after their graduation.

To understand better our ides, we
started with the presentation of some general considerations about mobile
learning and how can we use mobile devices in an innovative way in educational
process. As a result of theoretical considerations, we present some toolsets
that can bring us closer to the demand and need of our students, who are, we
must to admit “digital natives”.

There are two main types of toolsets
that we propose to: application that aims to respond to a specific demand, or
general resources, that can be adapted for any educational process. Each
toolset has a range of resources that can be adapted to individual needs and
local contexts. The
resources within them can be used independently or as part of a complete
process for developing future classroom scenarios. We hope that by using these
toolsets to contribute at changes, from a single classroom, to whole school or
wider education system.

We structured each tool presentation
in a similar manner, that is the result of our experience as ICT in general and
mobile device users, working with students on these devices. Bearing in mind
that not all application can be used on any device, we present mostly those
digital tools that can be used online, tailored for any platform, or for most
used of them.

That is why we recommend that each
time you want to use one of these digital tools that we propose to you, first
to verify if it is suitable for all platforms that you and your students have
on your own devices. As a general consideration, technical conditions are
important for a good usage of each application, since we need, for the most of
the time, to be connected to the internet. That is why we don’t recommend to
access these resources, and construct learning activities based on them, if you
know that the network in your school don’t provide a good internet connection for
all students, or if they have not access to personal resources, to be connected
online.

 

 

Introduction

School
failure and drop out, lack of interest in content and the way they are
addressed have become a source of problems for education. The school of today
is not and will not be more the school of yesterday. So the adjustment to the
new content, but mainly to the way to teach them will have deep implications in
the educational system. The change of pedagogical practices is an inescapable
reality that teachers and school will have to access.

We
have verified that the potential of multimedia applications, adapted to the
contexts of teaching and learning, can constitute important teaching tools in
the dynamics of the classroom (Lencastre, Bento & Magalhães, 2016). In
addition, there is a great popularity and familiarity with mobile devices that
have increasingly referenced attributes as potential users (Kukulska-Hulme,
2012). The rise of these resources is a fact that, in fact, can be explored in
the educational process, through the pedagogical model called Mobile Learning
(Lencastre et al, 2016; Kukulska-Hulme, 2012). Mobile devices, showing
advantages such as mobility, portability and connectivity, can help to develop
cognitive aspects, given the possibility of using the most varied multimodal
formats (Lencastre et al, 2016).

Thus,
we find that the benefits of using mobile devices in a school context have been
defended by several authors (Mascheroni & Ólafsson, 2014; Kukulska-Hulme,
2012), arguing that, as tangible systems, mobile devices place the emphasis on
interaction between the student and the task, in the manipulation with the
content, thus also avoiding the additional cognitive load that already exists
with the interaction with the content.

In
this context, six European schools (Colegiul Tehnic Edmond Nicolau Focsani –
Romania, 1st Lyceum of Rhodes Venetokleio – Greece, IIS M. Filetico – Italy,
Zsespol Zscol im.por. Jozefa Sarny w Gorzicach – Poland, Toki Halkali Anadolu
Imam Hatip Lisesi – Turkey and Agrupamento de Escolas da Maia – Portugal), and
the University of Minho have developed this guide to help teachers to develop
skills in the application of educational innovation scenarios using mobile
learning.

 

About
This Toolkit (How to use it)

 

This toolkit is divided in four parts:

1.      
The first one is
about What mobile learning is – contextualization.

2.      
The second part is
about innovative pedagogies with th use of mobile learning

3.      
The third part is
about some tools you can use.

4.      
The final part some
critical considerations are made about using mobile devices on the classroom.

The purpose of this toolkit is to help teachers
changing their pedagogical practices with the learning of new scenarios and
students can develop their skills of self-assessment, critical thinking,
adaptability and transferability of knowledge, enhancing their digital skills.

 

What is mobile learning – contextualization

There
is no agreed upon denotation of mobile learning. The concepts of mobile learning can be elucidated based
on culture and affordances of mobile technologies.

Quinn
(2000) defined mobile learning as simply learning that takes place with the
help of mobile devices, or the intersection of mobile computing (the
application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication
devices) and elearning (learning facilitated and supported through the use of
information and communications technology).

Pinkwart,
N., Hoppe, H.U., Milrad, M. & Perez, J. (2003, pp 383), defines e-learning
as “learning supported by digital “electronic” tools and media”, and by
analogy, mobile learning as ‘e-learning that uses mobile devices and wireless
transmission’.

Mobile
Learning means any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a
fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes
advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies
(O’Malley et al., 2003).

Mostakhdemin-Hosseini
and Tuimala (2005) view mobile learning simply as the natural evolution of
e-learning, which completes a missing component such as the wireless feature,
or as a new stage of distance and elearning (e.g., Georgiev, et al. 2004).
M-learning is often described as occupying a sub-space within the e-learning
space, which is in turn a sub-part of digital learning.

Mobile
learning should be restricted to learning on devices which a lady can carry in
her handbag or a gentleman can carry in his pocket (Keegan, 2005).

In
the ELearning Guild 360 Mobile Learning Reserach Report (2007), mobile learning
appears as “Any activity that allows individuals to be more productive when
consuming, interacting with, or creating information, mediated through through
a compact digital portable device that the individual carries on a regular
basis, has reliable connectivity and fits in a pocket or purse”.

According
to Lan and Sie, (2010) “Mobile learning (mlearning) is a kind of learning model
allowing learners to obtain learning materials anywhere and anytime using
mobile technologies and the Internet”.

Figura
1 The three concepts of mobile
learning

El-Hussein, M. O. M., & Cronje, J. C. (2010, pp 17).view mobile
learning as learning environmental based on mobility of technology, mobility of
learners and mobility of learning that augments the higher educational
landscape.

 

Stevens
and Kitchenham (2011) define mobile learning as “the use of a wireless handheld
device; a cell phone, personal digital assistant (PDA), mini-computer, or iPod
to engage in some formo f meaningful learning”.

Nyiri
(2002) defines mobile learning as the Learning that arises in the course of
person-to-person mobile communication.

“Mobile
learning is when the learning experience that you’re trying to design happens
to be out and about in the world.” (Dikkers, 2012)

MoLeNET
(2014) says that it is”The exploitation of ubiquitous handheld
technologies, together with wireless and mobile phone networks, to facilitate,
support, enhance and extend the reach of teaching and learning”.

A
popular definition of mobile learning is education that involves the use of
mobile devices to enable learning anytime and anywhere.that involves the use of
mobile devices to enable learning anytime and anywhere.