TAWHED carry out his duties and devote

TAWHED (ONENESS OF GOD)

 

               Faith is what lies in the deepest heart of a person and lies beyond the realm of minds. The fundamental pillar of faith in Islam is the absolute oneness of God. Any concepts of polytheism which carry the means of believing in multiplicity of God indicate the revocation of faith. Tawheed is an Arabic word which implies unity or unification (making something one) or “asserting oneness”. The meaning of tawheed according to Muhammad ibn Saalih Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen, is the noun derived from the Arabic root verb: ????????? / ??????? (wahhada / yuwahhidu) which means to make something one. The concept of Tawheed would not be fulfilled by men unless they testify that nothing deserves any form of worship except Allah. By this, we nullify any right of worship to anyone or anything other than Allah, and we affirm it to Allah alone. This is because negation is equal to an absolute and complete negation, affirmation alone does not restrict others from sharing in the characteristic.

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               It is compulsory to profess the belief in oneness of God by reciting Al-Kalimah “LA ILAHA ILLALLAH” to claim “There is no deity but Allah”, a person is considered a part of muslim community once proclaimed such oath. Thus, it becomes obligatory for a servant of Allah to carry out his duties and devote himself to nothing but Allah. Islam is a very comprehensive religion suitable for everyone regardless his race, colour, nationality or political loyalty. Allah is the universal God and He perceives all individual as equal under His laws

               The concept and theory of monotheism or tawhed is distinctive from other religion. Christians have the trinity concept and they believe in one God in three persons: the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, and all three manifest the same reality. The whole concept of trinity is contradictory to unity from what it claimed to be but they still insist on the unity of God. The Christian word of creed: “I believe in God and His only son Jesus who was put on the cross by such and such King. Then he went to Hell where he stayed there for three days. He then went to Heaven where he sat on the right hand of God. He will reappear at the end of time on earth for the accountability of the dead and the alive and that He shall die in flesh and shall attain life eternal”. The whole idea is absurd and questionable, how could Jesus sit on the God’s right hand when he himself is the manifestation of God? Hence, the conviction of Christianity are vulnerable to flaw and self-contradictory, confusing to the extent of it become unacceptable.

               Coherently, Zoroaster belief depicts the contrary between the unity of God and their discussion on duality. Their conviction is that God can do no wrong, cannot be attributed to evil and He does not create evil. Therefore, it conveys the message that God is good is different to God of evil, excluding all the possibilities of associating God with any evil. However, in this world, the good is defeated and evil walks with triumph and this ignite a spark in their discussion of life: Is God someone who is weak and defeated? (Khan, 2011) Islam on the other hand, has lay down the concept of unity in the most simple and straightforward manner, that is not parallel in other religions. There is never a God existed and to be worth worshipped other than Allah. The other creatures only serve as His servant and it is an obligation to devote themselves to Him and only Him. This has always be the explanation regarding the creed of Islam. In a book titled Tawheed: It’s meaning and categories, Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-Uthaymeen explained the concept of tawheed through an analogy: “if you said, “No one is standing except Zayd,” then you have singled out Zayd alone with the action of standing, negating it from anyone other than him. This is the true description of Tawheed in reality, meaning that Tawheed is not fulfilled unless it contains both negation and affirmation”. The application of Islamic faith does not rely solely on metaphysical and philosophical connotations, but are rather built on five fundamental pillars which infuse the spiritual values within the physical ritual.

 

TAWHED as WORLDVIEW

               Mutahhari (2013) define worldview as “world knowledge or cosmology; it relates to the well-known question of knowledge, which is an exclusively human property, as opposed to feeling, which man shares with other animals. Therefore, world knowledge is exclusive to man and is a function of his reflection and intellection”. Tawhed provide general view of reality regarding the truth, world, space and time, human history and destiny.

               The muslim scholars carry a huge responsibility to articulate the significance and idea of tawhidic worldview in the contemporary socio-political context due to the era of secularism and globalisation. There are many great muslim reformers and intellectuals; Muhammad Hamidulla, Mohammad Natsir, Syed Qutb, Abu’l A’la Mawdudi and Muhammad al-Mubarak, who express and derive the meaning and implications of Tawhed worldview to defend the Islamic creed in response to the ideological challenge faced by muslim communities back in the first half of 20th century which are Capitalism and Communism. Nowadays, Quranic and Islamic Worldviews are being challenged by numerous ideologies and worldviews, both religious and non-religious. Thus it has become crucial for muslim authorities to be able to address the current issues in accordance to the worldview of Tawhed

 

·         Al-Faruqi’s Exposition of Tawhed

               The principles established to understand the essence of Tawhed: Duality, ideationality, teleology, capacity of man & malleability of nature and responsibility and judgement.

 

 

 

1.      DUALITY

 

Duality means the reality of creation but subservient and devoted to Him. The reality is divided into two kinds, God and non-God (other than God). Allah is the only member and representative of the first kind and He will always remain as God the Omnipotent, the Eternal and the Creator. He will not by any means be associated by anything. The second kind includes all creations: angels, prophets, mankind, animal, plants, heaven and earth. The two categories can never be associated and must be absolutely separated. It is impossible for the element of creations to be co-fused or united and neither can the Creator be transformed and transcended Himself to become the creations and vice versa. “The two orders of Creator and creature are utterly and absolutely disparate as far as their being, or ontology, as well as their experience and careers, are concerned. It is forever impossible that the one be united with, infused, confused with or diffused in the other. Neither can the Creator be ontologically transformed so as to be the creature, nor can the creature transcend and transfigure itself so as to become, in any way or sense, the Creator.” (Faruqi, 10)

 

2.      Ideationality

Explains how humans’ knowledge and submissiveness to God are closely related. The faculty of thought endowed by Allah is the greatest gift to mankind, in order to help to understand the Will of God by two ways which are expressed in words directly by God to man or “the laws of nature,” the divine will is deducible through observation of creation.

3.      Teleology

 

The world is created by God in a systematic manner and not just a happenstance or coincidence. The very nature of cosmos is teleological; that serves a purpose of its creator, and doing so out of design. Everything existed for reasons and to fulfil certain universal purpose. In it, the will of the Creator is always realized. His pattern is fulfilled with the necessity of natural law. For they are innate in the way other than what the Creator has ordained for it. This is true of all creatures – except man. Human action is the only instance where the will of God is actualized not necessarily, but deliberately, freely, voluntarily. The physical ability of man is indispensable to nature, and all things considered they comply with the laws applicable to them with an indistinguishable need from every single other creature. However, the spiritual capacities, the understanding and moral activity, fall outside the domain of decided nature. They rely regarding their matter and follow his assurance. The realization of the divine will by them is of a subjectively different incentive in comparison to vital actualization by different creatures. Important satisfaction applies just to essential or utilitarian esteems. Be that as it may, the moral purpose of God, His rules to man, do have a base in the physical world, and henceforth there is a utilitarian angle to them. Be that as it may, this isn’t what gives them their particular quality, to be specific, that of being moral. It is decisively their part of being to be fulfilled in opportunity, that is, the likelihood of being satisfied or disregarded outstanding constantly open, that gives them the exceptional pride we attribute to things “moral”. (Hassan, 2015).

 

 

4.      CAPACITY OF MAN AND MALLEABILITY OF NATURE

 

Nothing in the world is created without a purpose. Thus, mankind must have the realization of purpose in space and time, in order to escape from cynicism. Without the existence of the moral obligation, God’s purposiveness or might is perished. Since everything was created for a purpose the realization of that purpose must be possible in space and time. Henceforth, men are required to be able to improve himself, his society or his environment, in order to follow the divine commandment, or else the very nature of universe will be destroyed. Nature, on the other hand, is created by Allah for man to transform and develop. Such manner is considered malleable and is able to receive man’s action towards civilisation as it is the aim of religion, to prosper the Earth. creation must be malleable, transformable, equipped for changing its substance, structure, conditions and relations in order to epitomize or concretize the human purpose, this is consistent with all creation, including man’s physical, mystic and profound nature.

 

5.      Responsibility and judgement

 

It is obligatory for man to change himself, his society and nature in accordance to the divine pattern. Since, mankind has been given moral action of freedom whether to perform good or bad deeds, also the privilege to make use of the world, it is deductible that man is responsible. Moral obligation is a waste without responsibility. Thus, judgement of responsibility is necessary for moral imperativeness to save mankind from drowning in the realm of cynicism. The reckoning of man’s deeds must take place regardless time to make man realise Allah’ command is real, to obey Him is to find eternal peace and to disobey Him is to receive punishment and agony.

 

These principles constitute the essence of Tawhed and Islam itself, thus, considered as the self-evident truths. As the very essence of Tawhed, it has provide the fundamental knowledge for all Islamic teaching and ethics through time.

 

 

CATEGORIES OF TAWHED AND THEIR CONCEPT

 

1.      TAWHED AL RUBUBIYYAH

 

Rububiyyah is derived from arabic root word rabb which means “Lord”. It describes the concept of Allah is the only one who creates and sustains. The definition of tawhed Ar-Rububiyyah is to maintain the Unity of Lordship, affirmation that Allah is alone and without partners who shares His Throne, this also includes singling out everything except Allah in terms of creating, possessing and sustaining everything. The fundamental idea of this tawhed are Allah is the sole reason behind the existence of the universe when there was nothing, He sustains and maintains creations without any need from it or for it, and He is the only Ruler of the universe and no one shall challenge His sovereignty.

Quran verses that supported statement of Allah as the single Creator:

 

???? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?

Is there are creator other than Allah that provides you with sustenance from the heavens and earth? There is nothing deserving of worship besides Him alone.

Soorah Faatir, 35:3

 

And He says, clarifying the falsehood of the disbelievers’ gods:

? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?

Is He who creates like someone who cannot create? Will you not then remember?

Soorah An-Nahl, 16:17

 

????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?

Blessed is He in Whose hand is the dominion (of all things). And He is capable of doing anything.

Soorah Al-Mulik, 67:1

 

So Allah alone is the main Creator. He made everything, declaring the creation before its reality. His creation incorporates what He Himself has made by His own behaviour and in addition the activities of the creation. Consequently, it is from the fulfillment of Iman in Qadr (Pre-decree) to trust that Allah is the Creator of the creations’ activities as He (?) stated:

 

????????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?

“Allah created all of you and what you do.”

Soorah As-Saaffaat, 37:96

 

 

 

 

 

One viewpoint of understanding this is the actions of a creature are a piece of his attributes. So since the slave is a creation of Allah, at that point Allah is his Creator and the Creator of his attributes as well. This could likewise be comprehended from the point of view that the actions of a slave are a consequence of his choice and capacity, both of these are attributes (of the creation) made by Allah

How do we combine between the singling out of Allah alone with the action of creating and the fact that the action of creating has also been attributed to other than Allah as the following verse indicates:

 

? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?

So blessed is Allaah, the best of creators.

Soorah Al-Muminoon, 23:14

 

And this is also indicated by the statement of the Prophet (?) regarding the image-makers:

??????? ??????: ????????? ??? ??????????

“It will be said to them (on the Day of Resurrection): ‘Bring to life what you have created!'”

Answer:

The answer to this is that anyone other than Allah cannot create as He does; they are not able to bring something into existence from nothing, nor can they bring to life the dead. The “creation”

 

By this, it is understandable that the truthfulness of our definition that Tawhed Ar-Rububiyyah is to single out Allah alone with the actions of creating, owning, and controlling everything.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.      TAWHED ASMA WA SIFAT

 

This category explains the idea of maintaining the Unity of Allah’s Names and Attributes, which is unique and unmatchable to anything else. Philips (2005) outlined 5 major aspects of this tawhed:

 

                                 I.            Allah must be referred to according to how He and His Prophet (saw) have described Him without explaining away His names and attributes by giving them meanings other than their obvious meanings.

                              II.            Referring to Allah as He has referred to Himself without giving Him any new names or attributes.

                           III.            Allah is referred to without giving Him the attributes of His creation.

                           IV.            It requires that man not be given the attributes of Allah.

                              V.            Allah’s Names in the definite form cannot be given to His creation unless preceded by the prefix ‘Abd meaning “slave of” or “servant of”.

 

Thus, tawhed Al-Asmaa was-Sifaat is singling out Allah alone with what He has named Himself with or portrayed Himself with in His Book or upon the tongue of His Messenger. This is by asserting names and attributes Allah has certified for Himself without twisting or denying them or their implications, nor trusting them to be like the creation’s, and without addressing the way of achieving the similar understanding as Allah’s knowledge. It is occupant to trust that whatever Allah has named and depicted Himself with of names and qualities are genuine and real. Be that as it may, we don’t dive into them, asking “How” they are and we do not trust them to be like the names and characteristics of the creation in any capacity.

 

Al- Uthaymeen (20167) stated that many sects of muslim are astrayed from misconception of this category of tawhed. Some went to the extent of negating any deficiencies to Allah, hence make them revert from Islam. To provide clarity, for instance, Allah has named Himself with the names of al-Hayy (The Ever-Living) and al-Qayyoom (The One Who controls and supports everything). So it is committed upon us to trust that al-Hayy is one of Allaah’s names and we should likewise put stock in whatever qualities this name infers which is an immaculate, regularly enduring and finish life that was not gone before by inexistence nor will it ever end. Allah has additionally named Himself as-Samee’ (The All-Hearing) so in like manner, we must trust it is one of His names and that He possess the characteristic. He is credited with the activity of hearing also, for one that is named “Hearing” yet does not really possess the hearing in the same sense of human, nor the activity of hearing sounds and voices, at that point this is an inconceivable logical inconsistency. Another example is that Allah (?) says:

 

? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?

There is nothing similar to Him. And He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.

Soorah Ash-Shooraa, 42:11

 

And He also said:

 

???? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????

?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?

Say: “My Lord has only forbidden al-Fawaahish (immoral sins, adultery, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), oppression committed without right, joining partners (Shirk – in worship) with Allaah for which He has given no authority, and that you say things about Allaah of which you have no knowledge.”

Soorah Al-‘Araaf, 7:33

 

And He says:

 

? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????

????????? ?

And follow not that of which you have no knowledge. Certainly, the hearing, the sight, and the heart – of each of those you will be questioned.

Soorah Al-Israa, 17:36

So whoever believes or says that these two hands of Allaah’s are similar in any way to the hands of the creation, then he has denied and made a lie out of Allaah’s statement:

?

?????? ?????????? ?????? ?

There is nothing similar to Him.

Soorah Ash-Shooraa, 42:11

 

3.      TAWHED AL ULUHIYYAH

 

The last category discuss in regard to maintaining the unity of worship, affirming that all spiritual actions can only be devoted to Allah. Tawhed Al Uluhiyyah is considered and the complement the other two, since many mushrikins or polytheists during the time of Prophet acknowledged tawhed Ar- Rububiyyah and tawhed Asma Wa Sifat, but left out the last form of tawhed. As the Quran said:

“If you asked them who created them, they would surely say, ‘Allah’ ” (Q 43:87)

 

Man must not worship or seeking pledge to other than Allah. Muslims will by any means devote themselves to Allah, not the angels, the prophets nor the pious and religious figures. Devotion is not merited by anybody except Allah. Disregards this sort of Tawhed and not satisfying what it involves, will result a man as a polytheist, regardless of whether he were to acknowledge and have faith in Tawheed Ar-Rububiyyah and the Tawhed Asma Wa Sifat. If somebody happened to trust that Allah is the sole Developer, Proprietor, and Controller of all issues and that He merits what befits Him of names and qualities, yet he reveres alongside Allah other than Him; at that point his acknowledgment of the other two kinds of Tawhed could never profit him. So in the event that one were to totally put stock in Tawheed Ar-Rububiyyah and Tawheed Al-Asmaa was-Sifaat, yet he conducts shirk activeities, for example by making pledges and seeking help from the djins, at that point he is a polytheists, disbeliever bound to live in the Fire until the end of time. Allah saysin the Quran:

 

??????? ? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ????????? ?

 

Indeed, whoever makes Shirk (associating partners in worship) with Allaah, then Allaah has forbidden Paradise for him, his destination is the Fire, and there will never be any helper for the transgressors.

Soorah Al-Maaidah, 5:72