The acidity of a fruit affect how

The Fruit BatteryDoes the acidity of a fruit affect how long it will power a light?Life sciencesExperimental InvestigationGriffin Gappa640 W. Scott St.Chicago, IL 60610Grade 7Table of ContentsAcknowledgements Page 3Purpose and Hypothesis Page 4Review of Literature Page 5-6Materials and Procedures Page 7-8Results Page 9-10Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 11-12Reference List Page 13-14Acknowledgements I would like to thank my parents, for their fine job in their service  helping me with my project and capturing my materials, along with their support. I would also like to thank the fine people of  Cermak produce, for having the fruits, and Home Depot, for having the nails, clips, and multimeter. And one last thanks to Mrs. Machado for helping me finish my work and for pushing me to my best.Purpose and Hypothesis Does the acidity of a fruit affect how long it will power a light? The purpose of my project is to see if a set of fruits could power a light. I wanted to do this because the project had a real world connection of finding a new way to make electricity, and I wanted to see if it was true. My hypothesis is If a light is powered by a strong amount of acidity, than a lime should power a light the longest because electricity is run by acidity, and a lime has the highest acidity of the fruits I wanted to test out. I came to this hypothesis from some of my research, including “When two dissimilar metals are placed in a common conducting solution,electricity will be produced. This is the basis of the electrochemical cell, or wet cell”(www.education.com). The two metals are the nail, and the copper penny. The fruit acts as the passageway. This was the base for my hypothesis. Review of LiteratureIn my hypothesis, the metals were the conductors and the fruits provided the acid. In another bit of research, “Batteries are comprised of two different metals suspended in an acidic solution. With the Fruit-Power Battery, the two metals are zinc and copper. The zinc is in the galvanization on the nails, and the pennies are actually copper-plated zinc. The acid comes from the citric acid inside each lemon”(stevespanglerscience.com). This gives a further view into the metals, as you can see, the fruit gives, the acid, connecting the metals together. A final piece is “Citrus fruits have an acidic content, and the more acidic it is, the better it is for conducting electricity. This is the reason why even though the nails were not touching each other, your fruit battery still worked. The fruit contains positively charged ions. When you inserted the galvanized or zinc nail into the fruit, the negatively charged ions or the electrons started to move from the fruit to the zinc nail thus leaving the protons in the fruit. This transfer of electrons generates electricity as soon as you attach the wires to the nail, and the bulb lights up”(explorable.com). This shows how the electricity still moves through the fruit, getting to the light, and powering it.To elaborate, the fruit has its voltage because “Since the juice in fruits is largely water, a piece of fresh fruit is packed with ions. Combining those ions with strips of metal triggers a chemical reaction that can produce electricity”(sciencing.com). This says that if i use  strip of metal, i could activate the ions, creating a voltage to power the light. Another point is that “Batteries work by moving and storing charges – a lot like electricity. In order for a fruit to be a battery, it needs to be able to conduct electricity. You may have learned about acids in school – if you haven’t, acids make ions, or charged particles, when put in a solution like water. These charged particles from acids are the same type as the charged particles in electric current, so the fruit that will make the best battery is the one that is most acidic”(van.physics.illinois.edu). This explains how the voltage is created, and how the acidity can power a light, acting like a battery.Materials and ProcedureMaterials:4 of each: lemon, lime, pomegranate, guava, strawberry, red grapes, plantains, golden delicious apples, vine tomatoes, and mangoes40 5.08-inch zinc centimeter nails40 penniesCameraKnifeTable cloth5 alligator clipsMultimeterSmall led lightProcedure:Buy fruits and test one of the fruitsStick one nail on each fruit, cut a slit of the other side of the fruit , place a penny there.Connect the alligator clips, one side on the nail, the other on the pennyConnect to multimeter to check voltageRecord dataConnect to lightFilm to see how long the light lastsRecord dataSwitch fruits when light dies outReplace nails and penniesRepeat steps 2-11Gather all resultsWrite paperResults My original results were not as I had expected. My research showed a light being powered by citric acid, but my lights would not work. I started with a tomato in my experiment.  I first saw that I did not have enough wire. I made some wire from bare clips and extra wire that I had in the house. I connected the wire and followed my procedure. Below I made a table of what items that I used, and if they worked or not. If it worked, then that means I got a reaction out of it, like a light turning on. If it did not work than that means that I got no light.item20 watt led2 watt light2 watt ledSnap circuits ledmultimeterwork/didn’t workDidn’t workDidn’t workDidn’t workDidn’t workworked When the tomato did not work, I decided to use a lemon, a very acidic fruit with a high citric acid content. I tested multiple lights with the lemon but nothing worked. I tried adjusting the clips, rolling the lemon, changing the nails, and nothing worked. I then decided to test the voltage of the fruits. The higher the voltage, the more electricity. “A higher voltage means a lower current for the same amount of power”(electronics.stackexchange.com). This shows that a higher voltage is based on the current, and a bad current can’t power much. The fruit may still make a current,  but not one strong enough to power the light. I used a multimeter to measure the voltage and had success. Here is a table of the fruit, the pH level(the pH level measures the acidity. The closer to zero, the more acidic), and the voltage.  fruitlemontomatoguavalimeRed grapesPomegranatesmangoGolden delic-ious applesplantainsStraw-berriespH level2.2-2.44.3-4.96-6.51.8-23.5-4.535.8-63.64.4-4.53.0-3.9pH levels from engineeringtoolbox.com, as well as www.colgate.comThis data show that a plantain contains a pH level of 4.4-4.5, yet carries a voltage of 125. This completely blows my hypothesis out of the water, with a fruit that was not a lime. It had a higher pH level, which surprised me because of all my research.Conclusion, Reflection, and Application In conclusion, a plantain could power a light the longest due to the higher voltage than the lime. My hypothesis was not correct, but that is okay. I wanted to find out how a fruit could power a light, and I did learn that it could, and how it is done. I know that my hypothesis was incorrect because I learned that a plantain had a higher voltage because if maybe the size, as it had the largest size of my fruits. I am still unsure as to why a lime did not have the highest voltage, or why the light did not power, like a saw in every video and web page I saw. But in conclusion, a plantain can power a light the longest because of its voltage, rather than the lime. For my application, I say these results can be used in real life because then people could elaborate and find a way to make this experiment working. If people were to do that, then we could power our houses of we run out of electricity. We could use this to teach electricity to children, or how to use some of the materials. If we taught this, then maybe we could have better futures. We could find a safer way to produce electricity by these findings. We can use this in the field of science for finding a safer way to power the world and stop pollution. Finally for my reflection, I think my test was fair. there may have been some problems with the lemons, because I had just gotten them a few days after I got the other fruits, but the results were kind of sporadic. If I were to do this experiment again, then I would try to power a light, but I found the base for the light, and that is good enough. Because of my fails, I am still curious about the light. Would the lime have done as good? I still don’t know the answers to this, and I want to learn them in the future. On a side note, I did find out that citric acid can clean copper because when I pulled out the penny from the lemon, I found that it had cleaned the half of the penny, and I think that is because the citric acid cleans off all the grime.Reference ListE. (2013, November 15). Fruit Battery | Science Project. Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.education.com/science-fair/article/which-fuit-produce-electricity/Fruit Battery Experiment. (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://explorable.com/fruit-battery-experimentFruit-Power Battery – SICK Science! | Science Experiments | Steve Spangler Science. (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.stevespanglerscience.com/lab/experiments/fruit-power-battery/Food and Foodstuff – pH Values. (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/food-ph-d_403.htmlPleis, D. (2016, February 18). Thirteen Acidic Fruits and How They Affect Your Teeth. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://www.colgate.com/en/us/oc/oral-health/basics/nutrition-and-oral-health/article/acidic-fruits-and-teeth-effects-0216Fruit Batteries. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from https://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=2390Why are more powerful tools using higher voltage? (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/17190/why-are-more-powerful-tools-using-higher-voltageWhy Do Citrus Fruits Produce Electricity? (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2017, from https://sciencing.com/do-citrus-fruits-produce-electricity-5167602.html