The as unethical. An article called “Birth

The
topic of contraceptives such as the oral pill, intrauterine devices, and Plan B
are controversial. Some may associate it with the negative connotation such as
abortion. Given the fact that birth control is an act of preventing pregnancy,
it has a variety of methods that can be quite effective. Take for example
condoms: doctors highly recommend condoms for couples on behalf of having
intimate relations. Even so, public education eulogizes condoms as a savior for
unplanned pregnancy; however, birth control has a variety of options, and such
methods like IUD’s and the pill are notably seen as unethical. An article
called “Birth Control Pill” published by Nemours
in advising teens about protection methods in sexual relations described what
birth control pills are and what they do exactly. Nemours states, “Most birth
control pills are ‘combination pills’ containing a mix of the hormones estrogen
and progesterone to prevent ovulation (the release of an egg during the monthly
cycle). A woman cannot get pregnant if she doesn’t ovulate because there is no
egg to be fertilized” (Nemours 1).  Ergo,
the hormones are chemical substances that control the functioning of the body’s
organs. In this specific case, “the hormones in the pill stabilize a woman’s
natural hormone levels and prevent estrogen from peaking mid-cycle” (Nemours
1).  The absence of the estrogen bump
restricts the pituitary gland from releasing other hormones that generally
cause the ovaries to release eggs some may say birth control resembles abortion,
but taking precautions before consequences such as pregnancy occur is not
similar to aborting an infant from the womb. On that account, if condoms fall
into the same category of birth control in preventing pregnancy from
transpiring, all methods should be considered equally. Although condoms are
cost effective than other contraceptives, the same thought crosses through an
individual’s mind with either method: “I do not want to get pregnant.”

            Thus, preventing pregnancy is a
benefit for couples in successfully planning ahead. An individual recognizing
the responsibilities they can and cannot handle is essential for their
well-being and their future plans. Jane Elinor Lester and Stuart B. Blakely
made a bold point in their journal article “The American Journal of Nursing,”
stating that putting a halt to pregnancy isn’t for reasons such as not wanting
a child but other factors such as illnesses, and considering the right to
self-choice:

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There
are women with tuberculosis, heart and kidney disease, and certain mental
disturbances, for whom conception must be prevented, but physicians have
already the power to prescribe methods for preventing conception in such cases.
The voluntary control of pregnancy is practically impossible, but self-control
and common sense are very effective and harmless formulae and may be safely
prescribed to such mothers as the desire to avoid the responsibilities of
motherhood, as they do not come under the class designated as “crimes
against nature.” (Lester and Blakely 779)

Hence, parenthood shouldn’t be an
obligation for all couples, for some may not favor having a child, and it is
all within what each individual is comfortable with. Likewise, different
features play a role in using birth control and mostly dealing with women’s
menstrual cycle. The irregularity of the menstrual cycle for some women and
couples is a concern. In considering such consequences as of unplanned
pregnancy, the method of pills or an IUD is utilized. An article published by Population Council called “Women’s
Bleeding Patterns: Ability to Recall and Predict Menstrual Events,” stated that
“ability to predict the onset of the next bleeding episode is of great
importance to couples using the rhythm method of contraception” (Population
Council 17). In being able to predict the next bleeding episode, the weight of
stressing if a missed period is a result of pregnancy is discarded. However,
some women who are not in an intimate relationship may still favor a
contraceptive such as an oral pill because they do not want to deal with an
irregular menstrual cycle. There are many causes for irregular menstrual cycles
such as stress, eating disorders, and excessive weight gain/loss, therefore a
woman has a right to choose what she utilizes to aid this particular situation.

Furthermore, on the issue of contraceptives
to avoid unplanned pregnancy, the subject of young adults is equivalent. The
idea that condoms and birth control should be available for adolescents is
quite controversial, and some would believe that premarital sex is immoral. Frank
Furstenberg argued against the claim of restricting birth control from young
teens in his journal article “Birth Control Knowledge and Attitudes among
Unmarried Adolescents: A Preliminary Report.” Furstenberg stated, “The
incidence of premarital pregnancy is to be reduced significantly, it will be by
decreasing the rate of conception, not sexual intercourse. This, of course,
means that methods of birth control must be made accessible to unmarried girls”
(Furstenberg 36).  The advantage for
young women having access to contraception is solely based on reducing rates of
conception, it does not eliminate sexual intercourse as a whole, but it will
help reduce undesired pregnancies. The rate of conception decreasing allows
females, especially young females not to feel obligated to stay in a
relationship due to conceiving a child with a certain individual; fortunately
it gives individuals their right to privacy and a chance for that individual to
take responsibility for their actions because young teenagers need to be
educated on how to avoid such consequences. That is why public programs such as
Planned Parenthood are a huge resource for adolescents, the program does not
judge nor does it ban premarital sex but it equips the young adults to take
precautions before engaging in sexual relations. The highlight of why programs
such as Planned Parenthood are significant is because as Furstenburg claims
another piece of important information in his article,  “Only 7 percent of the adolescents were unable
to define birth control or identify some type of contraception” (Furtsenburg
39).  The fact that seven percent of
young individuals did not know a type of birth control is available or what
birth control overall proves that those seven percent could be at risk of an
unplanned pregnancy. Although an unplanned pregnancy is not a burden, the
realization of having different options available prepares adolescent for outcomes
that they don’t want to commit to.

Relatively, contraceptives are seen to
be the same as abortion. The definition of abortion is the ending of a pregnancy
by removing a fetus or embryo before it can survive outside the uterus. An
abortion that occurs spontaneously is also known as a miscarriage as well;
which is most often performed during the first twenty-eight weeks of pregnancy.
However, Hannah Smothers wrote an article called “8 Dangerous Myths About Plan
B, Busted.” In her article, Smothers has Dr. Autumn Davidson, an obstetrician-gynecologist
as a resource to prove why contraceptives such as Plan B aren’t like abortion. Davidson
states:

A
medication abortion (the kind where you take a set dose of pills, and which
must be administered by a medical professional) works to terminate a pregnancy
(AKA an egg that has been fertilized and implanted in your uterus) by detaching
the fertilized egg from your uterine lining and dispelling the egg from your
body. Plan B and similar medications (which are available over the counter)
simply stop ovulation from happening — which means there will be no egg in your
uterus for sperm to potentially fertilize. If it works the way it’s meant to —
and it does at least 88 percent of the time if taken within 72 hours — Plan B
makes it so that there’s never a fertilized egg in your uterus at all.
(Smothers 1)

            Hence, a medical procedure of
terminating a pregnancy is performed when it is already implanted in the
uterus, contraceptives such as Plan B like birth control and condoms help
prevent unwanted pregnancy with the advantage of taking it within seventy-five
hours of sexual intercourse. While there are oral pills that induce abortion,
it is highly controlled and consulted by a medical professional first; abortion
is an act taken seriously. Thus contraceptives help reduce rates of abortion
because terminating a pregnancy can be prevented through options that are
available over the counter. Prior to that fact, contraceptives are reversible
as well. Meaning that after discontinuing a birth control method, fertilization
is effective afterward. P.D. Blumenthal who is part of the Department of
Obstetrics & Gynecology informed readers about reversible contraceptives in
the journal article called “Strategies to Prevent Unintended Pregnancy: Increasing
Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.” Blumenthal informed about such
methods like the Copper IUD: “These devices are approved for various durations
of use (generally, 5–12 years) and differ in structural design and copper
content” (Blumenthal 122). The advantage of the IUD is that it can even be
exchanged for a new piece if needed. Another advantage is that it lasts for
many years and the female can decide when she wants to remove when she ready to
conceive. Blumenthal also incorporates a graph to demonstrate the rate of
fertility after discontinuing contraceptives: “Failure: