arrival has always been the determinant to measure the relationship between
tourism and economic growth of a particular country Lean et. al (2014). According to Lee (2009), Chaovanapoonphoi (2010),Nikalaos (2012), Wang
et al (2012), Cheah et al. (2014) and so on. Tourist arrival can be divided
into domestic tourist arrival and international tourist arrival.
Chew (2009) studies the relationship
between healthcare and international tourism in Singapore. Data of total
tourist arrival is used as the proxy for international tourism. This research
is particularly investigate the interaction of short run and long run dynamic
between health care and international tourism by using cointegration and
Granger causality test. It resulted in the existence of unidirectional
causality between healthcare to international tourism in long run while in short
run there is no causality. This reflected that healthcare has positive effects
on international tourism and with that the Singaporean government has
entrenched itself as a top medical hub to attract more international tourist.
Furthermore, Cheah et al. (2014)
studies the relationship between tourist arrival and government healthcare
spending which took place in Malaysia. the studies resulted in tourist arrival
giving negative impact on government healthcare spending which it is contradict
with Lee and Hung (2010) research where they found positive impact between
both. The explanation to this result is that we Malaysia have one policy that
when the number of tourist arrival coming for healthcare basis increase,
government will reduce its role so that private sector can increase its quality
of healthcare services. Plus, the study by Lee and Hung (2010) took place in
Singapore, a developed country and might have different policy than Malaysia.
So, government should maintained the development of economic and tourism sector
to increase the development of health sector.
Another researcher, Dritsakis (2012)
studies the long-run relationship between real GDP, tourist receipt,
international tourist arrival and real effective exchange rate of seven
Mediterranean countries. This study use a panel data approach, annual data from
1980 to 2007. This study uses fully modified OLS (FMOLS), panel unit root test
and panel cointegration test. The result shows tourist receipts, real exchange
rate has positive impact on GDP. Moreover, it says real exchange rate has the
common scale impact on GDP where the higher the exchange rate, foreign exchange
tourism receipts will be higher too. So, based on panel cointegration , there
is solid evidence between tourism development and GDP in the case of seven
Mediterranean countries while FMOLS indicate the high impact of tourist arrival
and receipts on economic growth.
Yaovarate et al. (2010) this
research uses panel data to investigate the impact of CPI towards tourism
demand of Malaysia, USA and Japan to Thailand.
Overally, each country uses different amount of data due to the
limitation of monthly CPI data. In this research ARIMA and seasonal ARIMAX
model is the best model to measure tourist arrival of the three countries.
Through the model, it shows that it is important to use CPI to find out the
tourist arrival to Thailand. Furthermore, the higher the CPI, the lower the
demand of tourist to Thailand. The CPI of Japan and Malaysia does not effects
the demand of tourist to Thailand because both are known as short and medium
haul country as travelling to Thailand does not require expenditure unlike USA.