US – 1776 the thirteen colonies declared

US
History (Colonial Times)


Puritan confession and its members were the first pilgrims ?
“pilgrim fathers”

sailed with the ship “Mayflower” across the Atlantic Ocean in
1620

founded the first town Plymouth

Puritan work ethic consisted of a

? strict
comprehension of moral
? a
discipline in work and religion


British Empire demanded higher taxes by the nine colonies

? pilgrims
declared this as unconstitutional since they are not represented in
the London parliament ?
“no
taxation without representation”

British reiterating tries to force the colonies to pay taxes
culminated in the “Boston
Tea Party”
? American
patriots costumed as natives
? destroyed
hundred tons of tea to boycott the tea-taxes

July 4, 1776: solemn proclamation of American rights was put into
writing with the declaration of immutable human rights ?
life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness

a government can only be elected by the population to secure common
good
? success:
„all men are created equal” ?
principle of equality

inspired
generations and represent the world-historical importance of the
declaration of independence

Declaration
of Independence

written in 1776 by Thomas Jefferson

all American citizens are created equal

opportunity for every American (at first women were excluded from
this definition) to lead his/her life the way he/she wants to, making
his/her own personal dreams come true


stresses the rights of the individual
? while
at the same time taking the rights of others into consideration

1776 the thirteen colonies declared their independence from England ?
were therefore at war with England

questioned the rights of the British king, George III

? it
stated that everyone was created equal ?
was quite revolutionary at the time

new American government was to be radically different from that of
the British king
?
was pointed out in the preamble to the American constitution

American
Constitution


written in 1787

new ideas of a democratic state started in the preamble of the
constitution

in order to form a “more perfect Union”
? establish
justice
? ensure
domestic Tranquility
? provide
for the common defense
? promote
the general Welfare

? secure
the Blessings of Liberty to themselves and their Posterity

Civil
War (Secession War)


1861 – 1865

northern states ?
were called the Union, in blue uniforms

southern states ?
went by the name of the Confederacy, in gray uniforms

south ?
was more of an agriculture society because its economy was tied to
slavery with rich aristocratic plantation owners and poor white
underclass

north ?
was more based on industrial development which expanded rapidly with
the arrival of immigrants from Europe

broke out due to the desire of anti-slavery forces to prevent the
expansion of slavery into territories and new states

since 1860: president Lincoln was elected as president without
winning a single southern state, south realized that their political
influence was no longer important ?
they kind of just seceded

both parts of the country just evolved quite different

first modern war ?
rather fought in a distance than a hand-to-hand fight

1865: war left a devastated and humiliated south behind ?
north won the war

the civil war amendments gave former slaves the same rights as white
citizens had

Didn’t really work out ?
union troops left the south, the blacks could be denied their rights
due to their economic dependence on white society

the southern legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws
? to
install the practice of racial segregation and ensure white supremacy
?
thus racial discrimination was maintained for another century

Emancipation
Proclamation

as civil war began, president Lincoln was more focused on the
preservation of the Union rather than the abolition of slavery

wasn’t personally supporting slavery ?
knew that none of the people would support abolition as a war aim

thousands of slaves fled to join the northern armies
? Lincoln
was convinced that it is now the right time to use abolition as a
sound military strategy

22nd
September 1862: issued an emancipation proclamation ?
declaring that as of January 1st,
1863 all slaves shall be free
? did
not free a single slave
? important
turning point in the war
? war
turned into a battle for human freedom

13TH
Amendment

U.S. Constitution abolished slavery in America ?
happened right after the conclusion of the American civil war

since they knew that the emancipation proclamation might be viewed as
a temporary war measure, they focused on passing a constitutional
amendment that would so

Great
Depression

main reason: the catastrophic collapse of the stock market prices on
the New York stock exchange in October 1929

led to a general + nationwide loss of confidence in the economy

turned into a worldwide economic slump because of the special and
intimate relationships that had been forced between the U.S. and
European economies after World War 2

effected a lot of other people’s lives ?
people lost their job because they couldn’t earn money anymore