History (Colonial Times)
Puritan confession and its members were the first pilgrims ?
sailed with the ship “Mayflower” across the Atlantic Ocean in
founded the first town Plymouth
Puritan work ethic consisted of a
comprehension of moral
discipline in work and religion
British Empire demanded higher taxes by the nine colonies
declared this as unconstitutional since they are not represented in
the London parliament ?
taxation without representation”
British reiterating tries to force the colonies to pay taxes
culminated in the “Boston
patriots costumed as natives
hundred tons of tea to boycott the tea-taxes
July 4, 1776: solemn proclamation of American rights was put into
writing with the declaration of immutable human rights ?
life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness
a government can only be elected by the population to secure common
„all men are created equal” ?
principle of equality
generations and represent the world-historical importance of the
declaration of independence
written in 1776 by Thomas Jefferson
all American citizens are created equal
opportunity for every American (at first women were excluded from
this definition) to lead his/her life the way he/she wants to, making
his/her own personal dreams come true
stresses the rights of the individual
at the same time taking the rights of others into consideration
1776 the thirteen colonies declared their independence from England ?
were therefore at war with England
questioned the rights of the British king, George III
stated that everyone was created equal ?
was quite revolutionary at the time
new American government was to be radically different from that of
the British king
was pointed out in the preamble to the American constitution
written in 1787
new ideas of a democratic state started in the preamble of the
in order to form a “more perfect Union”
for the common defense
the general Welfare
the Blessings of Liberty to themselves and their Posterity
War (Secession War)
1861 – 1865
northern states ?
were called the Union, in blue uniforms
southern states ?
went by the name of the Confederacy, in gray uniforms
was more of an agriculture society because its economy was tied to
slavery with rich aristocratic plantation owners and poor white
was more based on industrial development which expanded rapidly with
the arrival of immigrants from Europe
broke out due to the desire of anti-slavery forces to prevent the
expansion of slavery into territories and new states
since 1860: president Lincoln was elected as president without
winning a single southern state, south realized that their political
influence was no longer important ?
they kind of just seceded
both parts of the country just evolved quite different
first modern war ?
rather fought in a distance than a hand-to-hand fight
1865: war left a devastated and humiliated south behind ?
north won the war
the civil war amendments gave former slaves the same rights as white
Didn’t really work out ?
union troops left the south, the blacks could be denied their rights
due to their economic dependence on white society
the southern legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws
install the practice of racial segregation and ensure white supremacy
thus racial discrimination was maintained for another century
as civil war began, president Lincoln was more focused on the
preservation of the Union rather than the abolition of slavery
wasn’t personally supporting slavery ?
knew that none of the people would support abolition as a war aim
thousands of slaves fled to join the northern armies
was convinced that it is now the right time to use abolition as a
sound military strategy
September 1862: issued an emancipation proclamation ?
declaring that as of January 1st,
1863 all slaves shall be free
not free a single slave
turning point in the war
turned into a battle for human freedom
U.S. Constitution abolished slavery in America ?
happened right after the conclusion of the American civil war
since they knew that the emancipation proclamation might be viewed as
a temporary war measure, they focused on passing a constitutional
amendment that would so
main reason: the catastrophic collapse of the stock market prices on
the New York stock exchange in October 1929
led to a general + nationwide loss of confidence in the economy
turned into a worldwide economic slump because of the special and
intimate relationships that had been forced between the U.S. and
European economies after World War 2
effected a lot of other people’s lives ?
people lost their job because they couldn’t earn money anymore